In the first study, 25 human volunteers underwent upper endoscopies and colonoscopies to sample their baseline microbiome in regions of the gut. 15 of those volunteers were then divided into two groups. The first group consumed generic probiotic strains, while the second was administered a placebo. Both groups then underwent a second round of upper endoscopies and colonoscopies to assess their internal response before being followed for another 2 months.
Probiotics have become buzzy in recent years: Celebrities including Lauren Conrad and Anna Paquin have been spotted carrying bottles of kombucha, a probiotic-containing fermented tea, and the probiotics market has been growing rapidly as more people pursue better health by taking probiotic supplements. Prebiotics are attracting notice too, but you may still be unsure of what exactly prebiotics and probiotics are. Here's what you need to know about them to decide whether taking supplements is right for you.
In 1917, during World War I, Alfred Nissle isolated a strain of E. coli from the feces of a soldier who did not develop enterocolitis during a severe outbreak of shigellosis. Nissle used the E. coli strain with considerable success in acute cases of infectious intestinal diseases such as salmonellosis and shigellosis [Nissle, 1959]. E. coli Nissle 1917 is still in use today and is one of the few examples of a non-LAB probiotic.
Probiotics produce enzymes that help break down chemicals the average human gut has a hard time with, like the oligosaccharides in legumes. That results in less gastrointestinal distress and better absorption of nutrients. Probiotics also elicit an immune response that helps your body deal with harmful pathogens and other GI problems. The hard research, especially on recommended CFU dosages, is minimal, but it’s expanding as interest in the product does.
In the United States, the FDA and Federal Trade Commission have issued warning letters and imposed punishment on various manufacturers of probiotic products whose labels claim to treat a disease or condition.[11][12][48] Food product labeling requires language approval by the Food and Drug Administration, so probiotic manufacturers have received warning letters for making disease or treatment claims.[11][48] The Federal Trade Commission has taken punitive actions, including a US$21 million fine coordinated by 39 different state governments against a major probiotic manufacturer for deceptive advertising and exaggerated claims of health benefits for a yogurt and probiotic dairy drink.[12]
“There are numbers of papers that do show that certain strains of probiotics, particularly the L. Rhamnosus strain contained in Pro-B, can help in prevention and treatment of vaginal bacterial and yeast infections,” says Mary Jane Minkin, MD, a clinical professor of ob-gyn at Yale University School of Medicine in New Haven, CT. “And of course, many women have to take antibiotics intermittently, which can incidentally disturb their normal vaginal flora. This probiotic can be helpful for women to maintain healthy vaginal flora.” Here are 6 times to say no to antibiotics (and when to say yes).
If you don’t have a specific health goal in mind and want to bolster the number of good bacteria floating around your system, Perlmutter recommends starting with a minimum of eight to 10 different bacterial species. He included a core five (L. Plantarum, L. Acidophilus, L. Brevis, B. Lactis, and B. Longum) and we added five more highly researched and universally beneficial strains for a general health pick. Vita Miracle, formerly Islands Miracle, has nine of those 10, plus 30 billion CFUs per serving.
Yogurt: It can contain Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Bifidobacterium bifidum. Research has shown links with yogurt to have positive effects on the gut microbiota and is associated with a reduced risk for gastrointestinal disease and improvement of lactose intolerance (especially among children), type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, allergies and respiratory diseases, as well as improved dental and bone health.
Update: I think this product is being smeared by a competitor! Look at all the reviews in April. Suddenly, a butt ton of not just negative but 1 star reviews. It's uncanny. So, what would compel a competitor to do such a thing? Well, it was the only 50 CFU, enteric coated & 20 strain probiotic on Amazon & it cost about 15 bucks. That, while products far inferior to it were priced for - often times - 2 or 3x as much.
Like adults, children also require the proper balance of flora in the stomach to remain in good health. A major health care study conducted by the American Academy of Pediatrics concluded that probiotic supplements could be beneficial for children under certain circumstances. More research is needed. However, the study indicates that children who take probiotics at the first signs of viral diarrhea exhibit symptoms for shorter periods of time than those who do not. The study also found positive evidence that probiotics reduce the chances of diarrhea caused by antibiotic use in kids. More research is required to confirm these results. However, many pediatricians already recommend probiotics to parents based on the data.
Yes, they may help. Lebwohl says there are reputable studies that show a link between the use of probiotics and the reduction in IBS symptoms, citing this meta-analysis. It's estimated that 11 percent of the world population complains of symptoms like abdominal cramps, diarrhea, constipation, excessive gas and/or mucus in their stools. While for some the condition can be attributed to certain dietary triggers, others appear to be stress-related, which brings us to the heart of where many claims about the effectiveness of probiotics lie—in the gut-brain axis.

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"The skin and the gut go hand in hand," explains Shapiro. "Since probiotics help improve the gut microbiome and aid in reducing inflammation, skin conditions will also improve. When eating a healthy, whole food diet as well, skin conditions get better over time. When the gut is not intact, other parts of the body also start to break down and become toxic. With probiotics, your gut becomes healthier and therefore, your skin problems start to disappear. "


The U.S. Clinical Guide to Probiotic Products1, Canadian Guide to Probiotic Supplements2 and the WGO Global Guidelines for Probiotics and Prebiotics3 provide suggested effective amounts of specific strains for treating certain health conditions, such as constipation or IBS. All 37 products listed the species of bacteria they contained, but only 14 listed amounts of individual strains. We found that 9 of those 14 products provided beneficial bacteria at effective levels. The Center for Responsible Nutrition recommends4 the industry move toward specifying strains as a best-practice because whether a product works and for what purpose depends on its strains.
A live formulation of lyophilized Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium infantis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, and Streptococcus thermophilus (VSL#3) has shown effectiveness in the small clinical trials, some of which were not randomized nor double-blinded, that had been done as of 2015; more high-quality clinical trials are needed to determine safety and effectiveness.[102][103]
Every day, we’re exposed to toxins and inflammation-causing molecules from food and the environment that negatively impact digestion through pathways, such as leaky gut, known in the medical field as intestinal hyperpermeability. In leaky gut, the tight junctions that are supposed to keep disease-contributing compounds from leaving the digestive system are disrupted, allowing a lot of things through into the bloodstream that don’t belong there.

Uncontrolled changes in blood sugar levels or a decreased ability to regulate insulin can have serious effects on your overall health, and since far more men than women are at risk for these changes, these issues are well worth paying attention to.5 Research indicates that regularly taking probiotic supplements containing Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium can help your body maintain blood sugar levels already within a normal range, whether you're simply at risk for insulin-related challenges or you're already experiencing them.

When it comes to probiotics, it appears that 10 billion live "friendly" bacteria is the magic dose, Dr. Novey says. That number may sound like a lot, but that’s about how many are in an eight-ounce carton of yogurt. (Check the expiration date, Novey notes: The further away the date, the more live bacteria the yogurt is likely to contain.) The probiotic supplements you buy in the health food store probably contain about 10 billion live bacteria per capsule as well. However, according to Novey it’s better to get your daily intake of probiotics from yogurt and other fermented foods than from pills or capsules. For example, yogurt also provides calcium, a much-needed nutrient. “Capsules are better when you need to recover your colon from having taken antibiotics,” he says.
We have used probiotics and prebiotic on horses since 1986, notice many benefits such less colic, healthier foals, better hoofs, helps with stomach ulcers, as well as cost savings. A hard keeping horse generally does not absorb the nutrients well the probiotics clearly improved that. Also dogs can benefit as well as any other animal not living in its natural environment. Our dogs have very little gas and no doggy smell. 16 years ago I found a blend that has worked for me since then I have not lost a day to colds, flu my issue of gas, bloat greatly reduced, my craving for sweets greatly reduced

For guys who prefer to take a swig rather than swallow a pill, there are these liquid probiotic drops from Probonix. The grape-flavored adult liquid is formulated to help with everything from bloating and gas to sinus issues and allergies. Containing 12 strains of probiotics and 1 billion cultures per serving, the manufacturer says it passes into your gut 10 times more effectively than other probiotics.


The statements on this website have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. The contents of this website are not medical advice and are intended for general knowledge and informational purposes only. Probiotics support many facets of overall health when taken regularly as part of a balanced diet and healthy lifestyle.
^ Jump up to: a b c "Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Bifidobacterium longum LA 101, Lactobacillus helveticus LA 102, Lactococcus lactis LA 103 and Streptococcus thermophillus LA 104 and reducing intestinal discomfort pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 (example, search EFSA for other opinion reports on probiotics". EFSA Journal. 11 (2): 3085. 2013. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2013.3085.
What's more, people who have serious heart issues commonly have S. mutans in their heart valves—this is an undesirable type of bacteria that’s actually more often found in the mouth. If your oral microbiome is in balance, S. mutans are normally kept in control by more beneficial species, but if things get out of balance, they can reproduce and make their way into your bloodstream via openings in your gums, compromising your cardiovascular function.3
Prebiotics do contribute to a happy, symptom-free gut in the sense that they serve as fuel for the good microbes that help keep the digestive process humming. So while on their own they don’t do much, you absolutely need prebiotics for gut microbiome support and healthy digestion. Natural foods are by far the best source — supplements aren’t necessary if you’re eating a healthy, balanced, and veggie-rich diet.
Got your gut on your mind? Then you’re probably up on the health benefits of probiotics. From boosting immunity to improving digestion, probiotics have been touted as the “superhero” of the gut bacteria underworld. And yet, there’s a lot we still don’t know about probiotics because the research is just heating up. To date, most studies that have been done on probiotics are on the Lactobaccilus, Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus thermophilus strains. Meanwhile, there are, oh, upwards of 100 trillion gut-friendly bacteria out there — some of which are popping up in trendy new waters, chocolates, nut butters and more. Here’s what you need to know before giving your gut the royal treatment.
Safety Warning In rare cases, some people may experience stomach upset due to Probiotics Cleansing Effect. This is positive sign as high potency probiotics removing waste or toxic substances from body. To avoid reaction, it's recommended to start with less dosage and slowly increase. Do not exceed recommended dose. Pregnant or nursing mothers, children under the age of 18, and individuals with a known medical condition should consult a physician before using this or any dietary supplement. May adversely affect existing medical conditions, including but not limited to: IBS (Irritable Bowel Syndrome), Gastritis, G.E.R.D. Please note: Probiotics may temporarily cause bloating, gas or gassy, stomach pain, hurt stomach or cramps (cramped, cramping), vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, constipation, changes in digestion, allergic reactions, heartburn, jitters, rashes, skin irritation, breakouts, headache, fatigue, changes in appetite, joints hurt, spike blood glucose, bad pains, terrible symptoms, tiredness, passed out or sick feeling or sickness. These possible side effects are rare and will vary from one person to another in occurrence and severity. This product does not contain Milk, Eggs, Soy, Wheat, Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Seafood, Fish. The Lactobacillus strain contained is grown on a dairy medium, but the dairy is removed in processing. People with severe allergies to dairy and those that are lactose intolerant should consult a medical professional before taking this product, as adverse reactions can occur. If for any reason you experience any adverse effects, immediately discontinue use of the product and consult with your doctor. Do not use if seal is missing or broken. Keep Out Of Reach of Children and Pets. KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN. DO NOT USE IF SAFETY SEAL IS DAMAGED OR MISSING. STORE IN A COOL, DRY PLACE. Do not exceed recommended dose. Pregnant or nursing mothers, children under the age of 18 and individual with a known medical condition should consult a physician before using this or any other dietary supplement. Do not take this supplement if you are allergic to any of the listed ingredients. May adversely affect existing medical conditions, including but not limited to: G.E.R.D., IBS, Stomach Ulcer(s), asthma. Please note: Probiotics 60 Billion CFU may temporarily cause heartburn, gas, upset stomach, stomach cramps, stomach pain (hurt stomach), irritated stomach, burning stomach, acid reflux, bloating, constipation, increased chest congestion/mucus, insomnia, inflammation, fatigue, make your brain not feel right, nose bleeds, agitation, headaches, nausea, diarrhea (liquid stools, burning bowel movements, runs), intestinal issues, dry mouth, rash, itching, hives, dizziness, swollen tongue, vomiting, heart palpitations, fast heartbeat, unexpected issues or sickness. These possible side effects are rare and will vary from one person to another in occurrence and severity. If for any reason you experience any adverse effects, immediately discontinue use of the product and consult with your doctor. Do not use if seal is missing or broken. Keep Out Of Reach of Children and Pets. Supplements such as this may contain stimulants that may cause upset stomach for a small percentage of customers. If you feel an adverse reaction or feel ill, please contact our support staff immediately to notify us of the issue so that we can offer advice or assistance. Please consult with a physician prior to beginning this supplement.
“If someone has disrupted his gut microbial balance, this is where a probiotic can be of benefit,” says Gail Cresci, PhD, RD, an intestinal microbe specialist with Cleveland Clinic’s Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition. “But whether it’s really going to help and whether you’re taking the right one are the big questions out there.”

The original theory, similar to the modern concept, but not the term, is generally attributed to Nobel laureate Élie Metchnikoff, who postulated that yoghurt-consuming Bulgarian peasants lived longer lives because of that custom.[8] In 1907, he wrote: "[T]he dependence of the intestinal microbes on the food makes it possible to adopt measures to modify the microbiota in our bodies[,] and to replace the harmful microbes by useful microbes."[9]
Twenty-one volunteers were given a course of antibiotics and then split into three groups. The first group were left to let the microbiome recover without any interventions, the second group were given probiotics and the third were given a fecal transplant of their own gut bacteria which was collected before the antibiotic treatment. The study found that the probiotics easily colonized the gut of the second group, but worryingly, rather than aiding the return of the normal gut microbiome, the probiotics actually significantly delayed it for months compared to both the group that had no intervention and the people who received a transplant of their own gut bacteria.
Once you have identified the right strain or strains, it's important to find a product that provides a dose that's been shown to be effective, and that contains it's labeled dose (ConsumerLab.com tests have found some probiotic supplements to contain less than half the amount of organisms claimed on the label!) To get test results for popular products, plus additional tips for choosing a probiotic supplement, see the Probiotic Supplements Review >>  

Lavermicocca, P., Dekker, M., Russo, F., Valerio, F., Di Venere, D., & Sisto, A. (2015, October 8). Lactobacillus paracasei-enriched vegetables containing health promoting molecules [Abstract]. Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics: Bioactive Foods in Health Promotion, 361–370. Retrieved from https://moh-it.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/lactobacillus-paracasei-enriched-vegetables-containing-health-pro
The National Institute of Health (NIH) is sponsoring the Human Microbiome Project (HMP), which is developing research resources to enable the study of the microbial communities that live in and on our bodies and the roles they play in human health and disease. The NIH has funded many more medical studies using HMP data and techniques, including the role of the gut microbiome in Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and esophageal cancer; skin microbiome in psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and immunodeficiency; urogenital microbiome in reproductive and sexual history and circumcision; and a number of childhood disorders, including pediatric abdominal pain, intestinal inflammation, and necrotizing enterocolitis, a severe condition in premature infants in which the intestine tissue dies due to lack of oxygen.
Probiotics have received renewed attention in the 21st century from product manufacturers, research studies, and consumers. The history of probiotics can be traced to the first use of cheese and fermented products, that were well known to the Greeks and Romans who recommended their consumption.[52] The fermentation of dairy foods represents one of the oldest techniques for food preservation.[53]

Future studies should address many of the remaining questions related to the basic knowledge of probiotics, such as the composition of human intestinal flora, viability and fecal recovery rates, physiological and immunological effects. Furthermore, most optimal doses, duration of treatment, comparison of different strains and different probiotics, single versus combination probiotics, combination of probiotics with prebiotics, efficacy of various probiotics in different disease states, and safety of probiotics in debilitated patients or in patients with compromised gut epithelial integrity need to be evaluated.


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The benefits of probiotics in your gut go beyond just healthy bowel movements. A healthy digestive system has to improvements in mental health and immune response. Probiotics are also currently being for their benefits to oral health and dermatological health. By aiding in protein absorption, probiotics can also help your body recover after workout and reduce muscle strain.
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