Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) may be prevented by coadministration of probiotics, as suggested by several randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Several comprehensive meta-analyses, recently published, all show that probiotics significantly decreased incidence of AAD (RR 0.39–0.43) [McFarland, 2006; Szajewska and Mrukowicz, 2005; Cremonini et al. 2002; D’Souza et al. 2002]. The effects were similar across all categories and formulations of probiotics and treatment durations. The most commonly used probiotics were S. boulardii, LABs, and several combinations of LABs, given in doses from 107 to 1011, for durations of 5–49 days, generally paralleling the duration of antibiotic therapy. One of the meta-analyses found that S. boulardii, L. rhamnosus, and multiple mixtures of two different probiotics were the most protective against AAD [McFarland, 2006]. Other specific preparations have been studied to a lesser extent and that may be why their efficacy has been found to be less significant. One randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in individuals over the age of 50 using combination L. casei, L. bulgaricus, and S. thermophilus twice daily during a course of antibiotics and for 1 week after the completion of antibiotic therapy showed reduction in the incidence of AAD [Hickson et al. 2007].
Even if some of the bacteria in a probiotic managed to survive and propagate in the intestine, there would likely be far too few of them to dramatically alter the overall composition of one's internal ecosystem. Whereas the human gut contains tens of trillions of bacteria, there are only between 100 million and a few hundred billion bacteria in a typical serving of yogurt or a microbe-filled pill. Last year a team of scientists at the University of Copenhagen published a review of seven randomized, placebo-controlled trials (the most scientifically rigorous types of studies researchers know how to conduct) investigating whether probiotic supplements—including biscuits, milk-based drinks and capsules—change the diversity of bacteria in fecal samples. Only one study—of 34 healthy volunteers—found a statistically significant change, and there was no indication that it provided a clinical benefit. “A probiotic is still just a drop in a bucket,” says Shira Doron, an infectious disease expert at Tufts Medical Center. “The gut always has orders of magnitude more microbes.”
Probiotics can also help offset the bacterial imbalance caused by taking antibiotics. Antibiotics kill good bacteria along with the harmful ones, often leading to gas, cramping or diarrhea. Potential benefits of probiotics have been seen in the treatment or prevention of many conditions such as diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn's disease.
Probiotics are actually bacteria – the “good” kind. Our bodies have trillions of these microorganisms, some harmful but the majority of them beneficial. “Good” bacteria help break down food and keep the “bad” bacteria at bay. Probiotic bacteria are found in cultured dairy foods like yogurt, fermented vegetables like kimchi and sauerkraut, and foods fortified with probiotic bacterial cultures. They’re also available in capsules.
SCFA molecules are a subset of fatty acids that are churned out by some types of gut microbes during the fermentation of fiber. They're associated with maintaining gut health and protecting against disease, so a probiotic containing baby-poop microbes could provide health benefits by boosting SCFA production in a compromised digestive system, researchers reported in the new study. [5 Ways Gut Bacteria Affect Your Health]
Probiotics are live bacteria that are present in yogurt, other fermented foods, and in pills. They are promoted as a benefit to the human digestive system. Normally you have trillions upon trillions of bacteria within the colon. Normally we ingest bacteria every time we swallow. Many of these swallowed bacteria may be beneficial while most are simply innocuous and cause no problems. The question for everyone who takes a probiotic much beyond yogurt is whether they really are a health benefit. Here is what we know medically about probiotics.
What is the difference between prebiotics and probiotics? Prebiotics and probiotics work together to encourage the growth of beneficial bacteria that can improve digestion and support the immune system. Both prebiotics and probiotics occur naturally in many foods. Here, learn more about the differences between them, their benefits, and how to incorporate them into the diet. Read now
What is the difference between prebiotics and probiotics? Prebiotics and probiotics work together to encourage the growth of beneficial bacteria that can improve digestion and support the immune system. Both prebiotics and probiotics occur naturally in many foods. Here, learn more about the differences between them, their benefits, and how to incorporate them into the diet. Read now
However, a 2003 pilot study and 2011 randomized, controlled trial both reported that RA activities remained unchanged, but the subjects treated with probiotics reported statistically significantly higher levels of “subjective well-being.” One suggested reason for this was that the trials were too short to establish changes in the observable changes in the internal earmarks of RA.
When seeking out the best probiotic for you, consider your overall health, dietary needs, antibiotic use, GI challenges, and similar concerns. Then, review our list of the ten best probiotic supplements, which offer everything from raw probiotics, which must be refrigerated, to shelf-stable, slow-release probiotics that concentrate fewer CFUs in tiny, once-daily capsules.
Probiotics help tip the balance back in favor of the good bacteria. In doing so, they may provide some relief if you have irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), ulcerative colitis, acute infectious diarrhea, and diarrhea associated with antibiotic use or Clostridium difficile (C.diff) infection. They also can boost your immunity, fight inflammation and potentially have beneficial effects on cholesterol.

Elevated levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-6R, IL-1Beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) [Dinan et al. 2006; Liebregts et al. 2007] and a lower IL-10/IL-12 ratio [O’Mahony et al. 2005] have been reported in IBS patients in comparison to controls, suggesting that IBS may be associated with increased pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. However, plasma cytokine levels may not necessarily reflect the expression or levels of cytokines in the mucosa of the bowel wall, but may come from activated immune cells in the spleen or liver [Nance and Sanders, 2007]. The imbalance between IL-10 and IL-12, observed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, was confirmed at the mucosal level in a recent study by Macsharry and colleagues suggesting that this finding may be an underlying phenotype in IBS and a potential biomarker for a subset of IBS patients [Macsharry et al. 2008]. B. infantis was shown to increase IL-10/IL-12 ratio in IBS patients [O’Mahony et al. 2005] suggesting a possible mechanism by which this probiotic may exert its effect.

This is one of the newer areas of probiotic research. Described as the “gut-brain axis,” researchers believe that the communication between the gut and the brain affects not just physical but also mental health and behavior. For example, a recent study found that probiotics can reduce anxiety, relieve stress and improve mental outlook. Another study found that the probiotics L. helveticus and Bifidobacterium longum reduced depression, anger, hostility and self-blame and improved problem-solving ability. Another study showed a difference in brain activity between women consuming yogurt and those consuming a placebo. More research needs to be done to confirm the effect of probiotics on mental and emotional health.


Supplements play an important role when the diet is not adequate to supply our needs. In the case of probiotics, one's diet is the ideal source for probiotics. These are live bacteria and need to be carefully monitored, stored, and combined for the health benefits that one would be taking them for. At this time, supplements are not monitored in the U.S. the way that food or medication is. They fall under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA). This requires that the dietary supplement or dietary ingredient manufacturer be responsible for ensuring that a dietary supplement or ingredient is safe before it is marketed. The only time that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) may get involved is if action is needed to be taken against a manufacturer after the supplement is marketed and then found to be unsafe. This means that as much as we may know about probiotics, we can't be certain of the safety or content of the supplements available to us.
^ Shane AL, Cabana MD, Vidry S, Merenstein D, Hummelen R, Ellis CL, Heimbach JT, Hempel S, Lynch SV, Sanders ME, et al. (2010). ": Guide to designing, conducting, publishing and communicating results of clinical studies involving probiotic applications in human participants". Gut Microbes. 1 (4): 243–253. doi:10.4161/gmic.1.4.12707. PMC 3023606. PMID 21327031.

Unless you know that your body is lacking in a particular type of probiotic, you should just look for broad-spectrum probiotics that contain a mix of different strains of bacteria, Warren says: "We have billions of bacteria in our gut, so by taking a supplement with a range of different strains, you will ensure you are not overdoing or missing one type." Keatley also stresses the importance of finding a supplement with a diversity of bacteria strains to keep overgrowth of any one strain in check. "Providing too much of an advantage to one strain of probiotic may push out another strain we didn't know was important until it's too late," she points out.
She totally did, but you may have noticed that you don't see those yogurt commercials anymore. That’s because in 2010, the Federal Trade Commission in conjunction with 39 states' attorney generals banned those ads, finding that the Dannon Company had no scientific evidence to back up their claims,. Dannon had to pay $21 million to resolve the associated investigations.
Elevated levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-6R, IL-1Beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) [Dinan et al. 2006; Liebregts et al. 2007] and a lower IL-10/IL-12 ratio [O’Mahony et al. 2005] have been reported in IBS patients in comparison to controls, suggesting that IBS may be associated with increased pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. However, plasma cytokine levels may not necessarily reflect the expression or levels of cytokines in the mucosa of the bowel wall, but may come from activated immune cells in the spleen or liver [Nance and Sanders, 2007]. The imbalance between IL-10 and IL-12, observed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, was confirmed at the mucosal level in a recent study by Macsharry and colleagues suggesting that this finding may be an underlying phenotype in IBS and a potential biomarker for a subset of IBS patients [Macsharry et al. 2008]. B. infantis was shown to increase IL-10/IL-12 ratio in IBS patients [O’Mahony et al. 2005] suggesting a possible mechanism by which this probiotic may exert its effect.
Today, most of the Japanese population begins the day with a warm bowl of miso soup, believed to stimulate the digestive system and energize the body. Made from fermented soybeans, rice or barley, adding a tablespoon of miso to some hot water makes an excellent, quick, probiotic-rich soup. The fermentation process can take anywhere from a few days to a couple of years to complete, and the end result is a red, white or dark brown paste with a buttery texture.
A healthy digestive system is vital to good health. The food that you eat is processed and the nutrients you consume are absorbed in the digestive system. However, it is also home to much of your immune system. This makes it important for helping you fight off illnesses. Probiotic supplements may help to balance the gut to promote increased digestive health and improved overall health as a result. However, more studies are needed.
Some yogurts contain the aforementioned bacteria; however, because they are sensitive to oxygen, light, and dramatic temperature changes, make sure to look for yogurts with “live and active cultures.” Many commercial yogurts are heat-treated or pasteurized, resulting in the loss of these valuable cultures. Learn more about the smart way to shop for probiotics.

Miso is a Japanese fermented soybean paste that is made with other ingredients. It aids digestive function. Miso may be used to make miso soup. A few tablespoons of the paste can be dissolved in hot water to make a probiotic-rich broth. An imbalance of gut flora in the GI tract may contribute to symptoms that occur with conditions like diarrhea, constipation, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), gastroenteritis, and inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis and Chrohn's disease). Probiotics in ferrmented foods like miso may help crowd out pathogenic gut bacteria, boost intestinal immunity, and produce vitamins, proteins, and other nutrients that are beneficial to health.
Focus on clean ingredients with foods that are easy to digest, low in fructose and other sugars, and devoid of substances hard on your gut like gluten, dairy, soy, and corn. I emphasize foods that are organic, pesticide-free, non-genetically modified (GMO), full of healthy fats, locally grown, and sustainably farmed. Those include healthy fats, nuts and seeds, high-fiber and low-glycemic carbs, nonstarchy veggies, and clean proteins like wild-caught cold-water fish. 

We also found strains linked to five other health benefits like weight loss and lowering cholesterol. We feature options for those cases below, but they aren’t top picks because those use cases aren’t as heavily researched as immune health or IBS relief. Still, chances are any probiotic supplement is going to make some improvement to your digestive health, so don’t be afraid to experiment.
We also found strains linked to five other health benefits like weight loss and lowering cholesterol. We feature options for those cases below, but they aren’t top picks because those use cases aren’t as heavily researched as immune health or IBS relief. Still, chances are any probiotic supplement is going to make some improvement to your digestive health, so don’t be afraid to experiment.
Update: I think this product is being smeared by a competitor! Look at all the reviews in April. Suddenly, a butt ton of not just negative but 1 star reviews. It's uncanny. So, what would compel a competitor to do such a thing? Well, it was the only 50 CFU, enteric coated & 20 strain probiotic on Amazon & it cost about 15 bucks. That, while products far inferior to it were priced for - often times - 2 or 3x as much.
Very few studies have actually documented survival of an administered probiotic as it transits the gut, by means of fecal recovery studies. One probiotic may not necessarily be translatable to other probiotic(s): for example, different Bifidobacterium species have different tolerances to acid and growth requirements and will have different fecal recovery rates [Matto et al. 2004; Takahashi et al. 2004].
Medications (especially antibiotics), stress, diet and other factors can alter the ratio of good to bad bacteria in your gut, causing infection and disease. This happens more often than you might think: antibiotics are one of the most prescribed medications in Canada and the US (and often prescribed unnecessarily… but that’s another story) (3;4). They’re important and effective in killing infection-causing bacteria, but they often end up killing a lot of good bacteria, upsetting that important balance and giving dangerous Clostridium difficile bacteria a chance to cause severe diarrhea and other bowel diseases, sometimes with fatal results (5).
Probi is continuously thriving to develop and investigate new possible indications where probiotics may have positive and efficient effects to improve health. We are science-driven, and investigate new possibilities to find the Next Generation Probiotics. This concept involves new bacterial strains that has never before been cultivated and used for health-purposes. 
If you want to take advantage of the benefits of probiotics and you also want to make sure the beneficial bacteria you already have is optimized to its full potential, supplement your probiotic regimen with Prebiotin. A trained microbiologist cannot tell you which probiotics are the best ones to choose, so why try to do something you are not trained to do? Eat lots of foods with prebiotics in them and take a prebiotic supplement like Prebiotin. It’s the best thing you can do to maximize the benefits of both prebiotics and probiotics on the bacteria in your gut, and your overall good gut health.
Once you have identified the right strain or strains, it's important to find a product that provides a dose that's been shown to be effective, and that contains it's labeled dose (ConsumerLab.com tests have found some probiotic supplements to contain less than half the amount of organisms claimed on the label!) To get test results for popular products, plus additional tips for choosing a probiotic supplement, see the Probiotic Supplements Review >>
"I usually recommend Garden of Life, BioK or Megafoods brand," says Shapiro. "I also recommend starting with about 30 billion CFU and making sure your supplement has at least 12 different strains. And if you don't eat a diet high in fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, and whole grains that provide fiber for the probiotics to live off of, make sure you're the one you are taking contains prebiotics as well.
This probiotic doesn’t contain any bacteria that produce histamine, a substance linked to inflammation, according to Nour Zibdeh, MS, RDN, CLT, an integrative and functional dietitian in Washington, DC. “Histamine intolerance is more common in women because of estrogen. The higher your estrogen level, the more histamine your body will produce. Symptoms of histamine intolerance include headaches, itchy and red skin, anxiety, congestion, post-nasal drip, stomach pain, diarrhea, and period cramps. If these symptoms are worse at ovulation or right before your period, I suspect histamine intolerance and recommend a probiotic that will help break histamine down.” Dr. Zibdeh recommends this brand. “It’s a mix of strains that are either neutral or may help metabolize excess histamine,” she explains.
Probiotics act by stimulating the growth of microorganism colonies in our bodies that are “good” or helpful. These beneficial bacteria play an important role in maintaining the natural balance in our systems, stabilizing our digestive organs’ barriers against undesirable microorganisms, producing substances that inhibit “bad” microorganisms’ growth, outcompeting undesirable microorganisms, and stimulating immune responses.1
Bad sleep creates a vicious cycle that damages your gut. Insufficient or poor-quality sleep also makes you crave something sweet or starchy because your body is tired and demands quick energy to keep it going. By the next morning, your digestive system is out of sync, and eating can actually make you feel sick to your stomach. With a few exceptions like shift workers and new moms, the choice to have regular sleep times is yours. Regular sleep patterns and at least seven hours of uninterrupted nightly sleep are crucial for gut and overall health.

The first major finding was that many people were essentially resistant to any effect from probiotics and their gut microbiome did not change after taking them.  Of 19 people in the study taking probiotics consisting of 11 of the most commonly found strains, only 8 had any notable colonization of their gut with the bacteria in the probiotics, with 3 people considered to have significant colonization and 5 people with "mild" colonization.
Probiotics are very promising and used quite often in practice. Many physicians, including myself, use them regularly for many gastrointestinal issues and other issues like infant colic, preventing diarrhea in patients taking antibiotics and for overall immune and respiratory health. There is still a lot more research that needs to be conducted but it is clear that they are here to stay, and the research base is likely only going to lead to increased use in many other conditions in both preventing and treating diseases.
Importantly, patients with gastrointestinal conditions are not the only ones taking probiotics. 3·9 million people in the USA alone regularly take probiotic supplements, with promised benefits ranging from improved digestion and immune function to improved mental health and prevention of heart disease. However, evidence for these benefits is lacking, and because probiotics are often sold as supplements, manufacturers in many countries are not required to provide evidence of their safety and efficacy to regulatory bodies. The ubiquity of probiotic products would suggest that, at worst, they are harmless. Nevertheless, some safety concerns have been raised, including the risk of contamination, possibility of fungaemia or bacteraemia (particularly in immune-compromised, elderly, or critically ill individuals), small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and antibiotic resistance. Adding to concerns, clinical trials of probiotics have not consistently reported safety outcomes.
Because chronic inflammation is at the root of many diseases and health conditions, the fact that probiotics exert this effect in the gut, where 80 percent of the immune system lies, is crucial. The immune-boosting benefits of probiotics seem to be particularly helpful for the quality of life of seniors. Currently, research is underway to test whether probiotics can “reduce inflammation and improve gut immune health in HIV-positive individuals” who haven’t yet undergone treatment.
Prebiotics and supplementary ingredients — For probiotic bacteria to grow, they also need prebiotics. High-quality probiotic supplements have both prebiotics and other ingredients designed to support digestion and immunity. Examples of these ingredients are (preferably fermented) flaxseed, chia seed, cañihua seed, astragalus, ashwagandha, hemp seed, pumpkin seed, milk thistle, peas, ginger, mung bean and turmeric.
Puritan’s Pride® reserves the right to discontinue any program or offer at any time. To expedite orders, we may substitute smaller size bottles if ordered quantity is unavailable. While we make every effort to ensure the accuracy of all information, we reserve the right to make corrections if an error does occur. Prices subject to change and may vary online.
Probiotics are being used with increasing frequency as a treatment for several medical conditions, such as allergic diseases (atopic dermatitis, possibly allergic rhinitis), bacterial vaginosis, urinary tract infections, and prevention of dental caries or respiratory infections. Probiotics are used as a treatment for a variety of gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. In this review, the historical perspectives, proposed mechanisms of action, formulations and delivery systems, safety, and specific GI disorders for which probiotics have been used are discussed.
But other research, especially in healthy adults, shows little benefit from taking probiotics. And in fact, it may even introduce new symptoms: One small study of 30 subjects, published in the journal Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology, showed that taking a lot of probiotics can result in symptoms like brain fog and bloating in those using them for GI complaints.

With Prebiotin, you can easily add prebiotic fiber to your diet without worrying about eating huge amounts of troublesome foods or hunting down hard-to-find ingredients. You also won’t have to worry about loading up on high-calorie foods that can negatively affect any effort to lose weight. Combining Prebiotin prebiotic fiber with a diet enriched with probiotic foods can only help your effort to positively influence the bacterial balance in your lower gut.
Important Disclaimer: The information contained on Health Ambition is intended for informational and educational purposes only. Any statements made on this website have not been evaluated by the FDA and any information or products discussed are not intended to diagnose, cure, treat or prevent any disease or illness. Please consult a healthcare practitioner before making changes to your diet or taking supplements that may interfere with medications.
Other ingredients: Maltodextrin, hypromellose (capsule), ferment media (organic Saccharomyces cerevisiae, organic gum acacia, organic soy flour, organic molasses, lactic acid bacteria [Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus], bromelain [deactivated] and papain [deactivated]), glycerin, silicon dioxide, microcrystalline cellulose, rice extract and sunflower oil.
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