If you have an immune system problem or another serious health condition, you may have a greater chance of issues. Some reports have linked probiotics to serious infections and other side effects. The people most likely to have trouble are those with immune system problems, people who've had surgery, and others who are critically ill. Don't take probiotics if you have any of those issues.

The European Food Safety Authority has rejected all petitions by commercial manufacturers for health claims on probiotic products in Europe due to insufficient research, and thus inconclusive proof of effectiveness.[3][44] Occurring over many years, the scientific reviews established that a cause-and-effect relationship had not been sufficiently proven in the products submitted.[44] The European Commission placed a ban on putting the word "probiotic" on the packaging of products because such labeling misleads consumers to believe a health benefit is provided by the product when no scientific proof exists to demonstrate that health effect.[3][45][46][47]
It’s not just about vanity! Your skin is your largest organ, and it protects your body from countless external threats. But, what many people don’t realize is that your skin is an important reflection of your internal health. Skin problems can result from nutritional and hormonal imbalances, as well as immune system disruptions, all issues that begin in the gut.
Previous studies have been contradictory, with some yielding more positive results about the benefits of probiotics, but most of them looked at probiotics in stool samples, not directly in the gut itself. In the new research, the scientists used more invasive methods to take samples of gut bacteria directly from different areas of the digestive system.
A slightly more surprising result, however, seems to be the way that probiotics may impact some of the symptoms of autism. Autism and gut health have been discussed for some time, as patients with the disorder typically suffer from a large number of digestive issues. However, based on animal studies, it seems possible that altering the quality of gut bacteria might benefit not only the digestive system, but the abnormal behaviors in autism, too. In 2016, a case study of a boy with severe autism was reported. While being treated with probiotics for digestive problems, the patient spontaneously improved on the ADOS scale, a diagnostic rating system for people with autism. The score dropped from 20 down three points to a stable 17, and according to the report, ADOS scores do not “fluctuate spontaneously along time” and are “absolutely stable.”
Probiotics are good for your gut! New Tropicana Essentials Probiotics® is a delicious and convenient way to add more probiotics into your daily routine. Probiotics boost your body’s natural microbiome and may aid in the breakdown of non-digestible components of your diet to produce beneficial compounds that can be converted into energy, out-compete the “bad” bacteria, and interact with the cells in your intestine. To supplement your established microbiome, probiotics should be consumed regularly.
What about prebiotics vs probiotics? Prebiotics are the food fibers that go through the gut unchanged and are then used by good colon bacteria as a food source for their own growth. Everyone already has most of these good bacteria present, but often in small quantities. Prebiotics are used to stimulate their growth. Simply stated, you already grow your own probiotics within your colon. You do not rely on them to make the passage through the stomach acid — acid that can destroy many probiotic bacteria. That’s why taking a probiotic supplement or adding probiotic foods to your diet does not always help your digestive system. You can eat as many probiotic bacteria as you want, but if they don’t survive the trip to the colon, your effort will be fruitless.
Research suggests probiotics work better as a team. Even pairs are more effective than individuals. Take the strains Lactobacillus Acidophilus and Bifidobacterium Bifidum BB-12, for example. When combined, this duo-force has been shown to help treat GI-specific ailments. In fact, one survey found 75 percent of studies that compared the effect of a strain mixture with a single-strain supplement showed a mixture was more effective at improving irritable bowel symptoms, immune function, and digestive health.
What are the gut microbiota and human microbiome? Microbes are commonly associated with disease, but there are millions inside the human body, and some provide distinct benefits. The microbiota and microbiome of the human body have been researched intensively in recent years. Find out about what we now know about them and what they mean for health. Read now

"People have thrown a lot of support to probiotics, even though the literature underlying our understanding of them is very controversial; we wanted to determine whether probiotics such as the ones you buy in the supermarket do colonize the gastrointestinal tract like they're supposed to, and then whether these probiotics are having any impact on the human host," says senior author Eran Elinav, an immunologist at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel. "Surprisingly, we saw that many healthy volunteers were actually resistant in that the probiotics couldn't colonize their GI tracts. This suggests that probiotics should not be universally given as a 'one-size-fits-all' supplement. Instead, they could be tailored to the needs of each individual."


Though capsules are ideal for quick, convenient consumption, powdered products are a great choice for anyone who wants to mix their probiotics with shakes or smoothies. The Hyperbiotics Organic Prebiotic Powder is a totally taste-free prebiotic powder that has inulin, FOS, resistant starch, and dietary fiber to help keep your gut health in line. Unlike probiotics, prebiotics works to nourish and grow the bacteria that is already in your body. This supplement also has acacia fiber, which is said to help suppress appetite and reduce gas and bloating. You can take between one and three scoops of powder a day, depending on how much microbial support you’re looking for. Each container comes with 375 grams or roughly 54 servings, and it doesn’t need to be refrigerated.
Other ingredients: Maltodextrin, hypromellose (capsule), ferment media (organic Saccharomyces cerevisiae, organic gum acacia, organic soy flour, organic molasses, lactic acid bacteria [Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus], bromelain [deactivated] and papain [deactivated]), glycerin, silicon dioxide, microcrystalline cellulose, rice extract and sunflower oil.

"Contrary to the current dogma that probiotics are harmless and benefit everyone, these results reveal a new potential adverse side effect of probiotic use with antibiotics that might even bring long-term consequences," Elinav says. "In contrast, replenishing the gut with one's own microbes is a personalized mother-nature-designed treatment that led to a full reversal of the antibiotics' effects."
Yogurt is a well-known food source of probiotics, beneficial bacteria that promote health. Certain strains of bacteria in yogurt have ß-D-galactosidase, which is an enzyme that helps break down lactose in dairy products into the sugars glucose and galactose. A lack of this enzyme causes lactose malabsorption. People who eat fresh yogurt containing live and active cultures digest lactose better than those who eat pasteurized yogurt. Yogurt is also rich in minerals like magnesium, phosphorous, potassium, and calcium, which are important for building and maintaining healthy bones.. The USDA MyPlate recommends that adults consume 3 cups of calcium-rich dairy products, including milk, cheese, and yogurt, per day. What counts as a cup of dairy? One cup of milk or yogurt, 2 ounces of processed cheese, and 1 ½ ounces of natural cheese all count as a cup of dairy. Lactobacillus bulgaricus is a probiotic organism that is often found in yogurt.

Some strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) may affect pathogens by means of competitive inhibition (i.e., by competing for growth) and some evidence suggests they may improve immune function by increasing the number of IgA-producing plasma cells and increasing or improving phagocytosis, as well as increasing the proportion of T lymphocytes and natural killer cells.[96][97] LAB products might aid in the treatment of acute diarrhea, and possibly affect rotavirus infections in children and travelers' diarrhea in adults,[96][97] but no products are approved for such indications. A large study demonstrated that probiotics may decrease dental caries in children.[98] Two reviews reported reduction of the incidence of respiratory-tract infections in adults.[99][100]


When it comes to probiotics, it appears that 10 billion live "friendly" bacteria is the magic dose, Dr. Novey says. That number may sound like a lot, but that’s about how many are in an eight-ounce carton of yogurt. (Check the expiration date, Novey notes: The further away the date, the more live bacteria the yogurt is likely to contain.) The probiotic supplements you buy in the health food store probably contain about 10 billion live bacteria per capsule as well. However, according to Novey it’s better to get your daily intake of probiotics from yogurt and other fermented foods than from pills or capsules. For example, yogurt also provides calcium, a much-needed nutrient. “Capsules are better when you need to recover your colon from having taken antibiotics,” he says.
Digestive problems. The best evidence for probiotics is for reducing diarrhea, especially following antibiotic use. A 2010 review from the Cochrane Collaboration concluded that probiotics shorten episodes of acute infectious diarrhea. And in 2011, a Health Canada monograph stated that products containing certain probiotics (such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG) help manage acute infectious diarrhea and antibiotic-associated diarrhea. A 2012 research review in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) found that probiotics reduced the risk of antibiotic-associated diarrhea by 42 percent—but many of the studies had flaws, so these findings should be interpreted with caution. A 2013 Cochrane review of 23 trials also concluded that probiotics may be effective for preventing antibiotic-related diarrhea. However, two large, well-designed studies, in the Lancet in 2013 and the Annals of Internal Medicine in 2014, found that probiotics were no better than a placebo in preventing diarrhea in older people taking antibiotics. A review of 19 studies, published in Gastroenterology in 2017, found that probiotics reduce the risk of Clostridium difficile-related diarrhea in hospital patients, especially when the supplements were started during the first two days of antibiotic treatment.

The prebiotic comes before and helps the probiotic, and then the two can combine to have a synergistic effect, known as synbiotics. A prebiotic is actually a nondigestible carbohydrate that acts as food for the probiotics and bacteria in your gut. The definition of the effect of prebiotics is the selective stimulation of growth and/or activity(ies) of one or a limited number of microbial genus(era)/species in the gut microbiota that confer(s) health benefits to the host. The health benefits have been suggested to include acting as a remedy for gastrointestinal (GI) complications such as enteritis, constipation, and irritable bowel disease; prevention and treatment of various cancers; decreasing allergic inflammation; treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and fighting immune deficiency diseases. There has also been research showing that the dietary intake of particular food products with a prebiotic effect has been shown, especially in adolescents, but also tentatively in postmenopausal women, to increase calcium absorption as well as bone calcium accretion and bone mineral density. The benefits for obesity and type 2 diabetes are growing as recent data, both from experimental models and from human studies, have shown particular food products with prebiotics have influences on energy homeostasis, satiety regulation, and body weight gain.
Because probiotics are taken by mouth, their efficacy depends on how well they can stand up to the very acidic environment of the stomach and gastrointestinal tract. The highest quality probiotics will pass through your stomach still intact and move into the intestines where nutrients are absorbed. This is where probiotics do most of their healing and good work.
For the generally healthy person, you can make a very good case to trust your own body to select and grow the best bacteria that are already in everyone. The foods you eat greatly influence your bacterial mix. Although probiotics offer many positive health benefits, there is no guarantee that they can make the trip from your mouth to your lower gut intact. Although adding more prebiotic fiber to your diet cannot guarantee safe passage of probiotics, it can influence the healthy bacteria that already live in your system. If probiotics help you, eating prebiotic foods or supplements will cause those healthy bacteria to flourish.
If you have annoying tummy troubles... Allow your predominant symptoms to guide you. Bloated and constipated? Look for lactobacillus acidophilus or lactobacillus casei, which help restore gut flora. Can't stop going number two? Types with saccharomyces boulardii can ease antibiotic-associated diarrhea and even prevent extreme cases caused by infections.
As far as effectiveness, keep in mind that unlike medications, dietary supplements do NOT need to be approved by the FDA. This means that manufacturers can sell supplements simply with "claims" of safety and effectiveness. Currently, researchers are undecided if probiotic supplements are effective. Some say probiotics are effective; others believe they offer no benefit whatsoever. It also remains unclear which probiotics (or combination of probiotics) work to treat certain diseases. Despite these issues, some studies have shown positive results. Still, more research is needed to confirm that probiotics are safe and effective.

To boost the immune system, B. Lactis is a promising choice. One study had participants taking either a probiotic or a placebo for six weeks. At the end of this period, researchers measured antibody levels and found greater increases in antibodies of the B. lactis group than in placebo participants, concluding that this probiotic may help improve immune function [1]. In addition, a 2009 study found that supplementation of the strain B. lactis DN-173 led to self-reported improvements in digestive comfort [2].
Hi Elaine - Most probiotics sold in pill form are dried in a way which keeps them in a dormant yet still viable state, coming "back to life" once exposed to water/nutrients. Although this helps to preserve them, it is not a guarantee that all will survive. If exposed to moisture or excessive heat during storage, they can become non-viable. This is why ConsumerLab.com tests probiotic supplements to determine how many viable cells they contain (see the results here: https://www.consumerlab.com/reviews/_/probiotics/#results). For more information about this and withstanding stomach acid, see the "What to Consider When Buying" section of the Probiotics Review (https://www.consumerlab.com/reviews/_/probiotics/#buying), and this CL Answer: https://www.consumerlab.com/answers/_/probiotics_enteric_coating/.
Many studies have been conducted about the benefits of probiotics on a large number of health issues and conditions. Here, I’ll focus on the more thoroughly researched probiotics benefits, largely by sharing the results and data of meta-analyses on the subjects. Then, I have listed several areas of emerging research on the benefits of probiotics, reflected in small or pilot studies with promising results on probiotic benefits, as well as ways probiotics can be accessed.

When I polled friends and family about their personal experiences with probiotics, I got a real mixed bag of responses. Some called them a lifesaver and others felt no effects whatsoever. I put the anecdotes aside and talked to Ben Lebwohl, gastroenterologist and director of clinical research at Columbia University’s Celiac Disease Center, to get the straight poop on whether probiotics are miracle or myth.


There’s preliminary evidence that some probiotics are helpful in preventing diarrhea caused by infections and antibiotics and in improving symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome, but more needs to be learned. We still don’t know which probiotics are helpful and which are not. We also don’t know how much of the probiotic people would have to take or who would most likely benefit from taking probiotics. Even for the conditions that have been studied the most, researchers are still working toward finding the answers to these questions.
Focus on clean ingredients with foods that are easy to digest, low in fructose and other sugars, and devoid of substances hard on your gut like gluten, dairy, soy, and corn. I emphasize foods that are organic, pesticide-free, non-genetically modified (GMO), full of healthy fats, locally grown, and sustainably farmed. Those include healthy fats, nuts and seeds, high-fiber and low-glycemic carbs, nonstarchy veggies, and clean proteins like wild-caught cold-water fish.
The European Food Safety Authority has rejected all petitions by commercial manufacturers for health claims on probiotic products in Europe due to insufficient research, and thus inconclusive proof of effectiveness.[3][44] Occurring over many years, the scientific reviews established that a cause-and-effect relationship had not been sufficiently proven in the products submitted.[44] The European Commission placed a ban on putting the word "probiotic" on the packaging of products because such labeling misleads consumers to believe a health benefit is provided by the product when no scientific proof exists to demonstrate that health effect.[3][45][46][47]
To obtain more probiotics, enjoy an assortment of fermented dairy foods including yogurt, kefir, and aged cheeses, all of which contain live cultures. The active cultures in yogurt will not only help with digestion, but also help us better absorb nutrients from our food. The FDA requires at least two strains of bacteria in all yogurts, though manufacturers can add more. Kefir is a liquid yogurt that is cultured five to eight times longer than yogurt, giving good bacteria more time to multiply. It contains as many as 12 strains of bacteria and is delicious in smoothies and overnight oats.
Within the past few years, the probiotics market has been EXPLODING. Doctors may have been prescribing them for a long time, but only recently have people started including these extraordinary supplements in their daily diets. Those who have started regularly taking probiotics have reported many improvements in their overall health. Here are some examples of the benefits thousands of daily users report:
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There are a lot of factors that play a role in how well probiotics survive before it actually hits your system. How long a store keeps the product in storage before selling it, the temperature at which you store the probiotic, the foods you eat the probiotic with, or the medications you take can affect the effectiveness of the probiotic. If you’re buying a product closer to its “Sell By” date, you might not reap the full benefits because that probiotic may not be as strong.
Undaunted, researchers looked into whether probiotics might be beneficial in a host of disorders, even when the connection to gut health and the microbiome was tenuous. Reviews show that there is insufficient evidence to recommend their use to treat or prevent eczema, preterm labor, gestational diabetes, bacterial vaginosis, allergic diseases or urinary tract infections.
What's more, people who have serious heart issues commonly have S. mutans in their heart valves—this is an undesirable type of bacteria that’s actually more often found in the mouth. If your oral microbiome is in balance, S. mutans are normally kept in control by more beneficial species, but if things get out of balance, they can reproduce and make their way into your bloodstream via openings in your gums, compromising your cardiovascular function.3 

Swanson Probiotic for Digestive Health helps support digestion with 16 carefully selected strains so you can feel your best.* Your digestive tract is a diverse ecosystem, home to billions of microorganisms. The “good ones,” known as probiotics, provide valuable support for healthy digestion, immune function and many other vital processes throughout the body.* Probiotics help establish and maintain a healthy balance of bacteria in the GI tract by increasing the population of beneficial strains. Prebiotics, such as fructooligosaccharides (FOS), enhance this activity by nourishing probiotic organisms to ensure that they thrive.

From modern diets filled with sugar and additives to exposure to antibiotics in both medicine and food, your lifestyle can wreak havoc on your body’s delicate balance of bacteria. Even aging, stress, environmental toxins, and medications (such as antacids, birth control, and steroids) can have indiscriminate effects on your healthy microflora balance.
Lactobacillus predominantly live in your small bowel (the portion of your gut that follows the stomach). Probiotics containing Lactobacillus sp. help to repopulate the small intestine with friendly organisms that aid in supporting digestion and immune function. The most beneficial are L. acidophilus, L. plantarum, and L. paracasei. One study found Lactobacillus acidophilus could reduce gut inflammation. L. rhamnosus helps increase GABA expression (an inhibitory neurotransmitter that helps you feel relaxed) in the brain, resulting in lower anxiety and depression-related behavior. Another found that a combination of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria (which we'll talk about next) improved symptoms of bloating in patients with functional bowel disorders, and yet another found that when people took the Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG strain, it significantly reduced the risk for antibiotic-associated diarrhea.
If your child has a history of stomach problems that medicine doesn’t seem to help, adding a probiotic to his or her diet can help. We love the OLLY Kids Happy Tummy Gummy Supplements because they offer complete probiotic support in a kid-friendly gummy form. Each gummy has a blend of prebiotic, probiotic, and peppermint to help soothe upset stomachs. They contain 500 million CFU of Bacillus coagulans. This container comes with 30 gummies (to be taken once a day) and is recommended for children 2 years and older.

The National Yogurt Association, who created this seal of approval, requires all yogurt manufacturers to include it on products that meet the standard of having a sufficient number of probiotics. The probiotics in store-bought yogurt need to meet this standard in order to be shelf-stable and reach your body alive. But even then, this standard isn’t all that useful in practice. The number just refers to the total number of live cultures and not the levels for each of those microbes. It’s possible, Taub-Dix says, that a product won’t have high enough levels of a certain probiotic to have any effect.


This specific strain of bacteria consistently ranks as a contender for the best probiotic for constipation and healthy digestion. And according to one study out of Iran, it may also be the best probiotic for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In fact, researchers showed that treating patients with IBS using Bacillus coagulans helped significantly improve diarrhea and reduce abdominal pain compared to a placebo. (2)

Bottom line: Probiotics are a promising field of research and may one day be used to treat or help prevent many disorders. But there’s not enough solid evidence to recommend their widespread use. Vague claims that probiotics "support good digestive health" are meaningless. Larger, longer and better studies are needed to test specific strains for specific conditions and to determine the proper doses and regimens.

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