Secondly, probiotics must have undergone controlled evaluation to document health benefits in the target host. Only products that contain live organisms shown in reproducible human studies to confer a health benefit can actually claim to be probiotic.[3][115][116] The correct definition of health benefit, backed with solid scientific evidence, is a strong element for the proper identification and assessment of the effect of a probiotic. This aspect represents a major challenge for scientific and industrial investigations because several difficulties arise, such as variability in the site for probiotic use (oral, vaginal, intestinal) and mode of application.[61]

Supplements: dietary probiotic supplements -- which are available in capsules, tablets, powders and liquid extracts -- each contain a specific type of probiotic. These products are available at health food and natural food stores, vitamin shops, and other stores. As an example, one commonly used supplement is acidophilus, which is available from several supplement manufacturers.
Dietary fiber comes in two "flavors," and they each play a different role in gut health. Soluble fiber attracts water and forms a gel-like substance during digestion, helping you feel full longer and slowing the rate at which sugar from food enters your bloodstream. Soluble fiber also doubles as a prebiotic to feed your good gut flora (more on that in a minute). Good soluble fiber sources include apples, beans, blueberries, and freshly ground flaxseed. Insoluble fiber, on the other hand, is found in vegetables and whole grains and provides bulk to your stool and prevents constipation. Because it doesn’t dissolve in water, insoluble fiber passes through your gut relatively intact, promoting the passage of food and waste. Most foods contain a blend of soluble and insoluble fiber. If you also supplement, look for a powder that contains a blend of soluble and insoluble fibers that mimic what you get in food.

DNA Shift is a once-daily, powerful probiotic delivering 50 billion CFUs and 11 probiotic strains. It’s perfect for both men and women who want to improve their gut and brain health. With long-term use, you may even see improved mood and energy levels. This probiotic can help relieve the following: symptoms of gas and bloating, constipation indigestion, irregularity, leaky gut, and diarrhea induced by antibiotics.


However, it’s not just digestive woes that probiotics can help address. A clinical case series followed 300 patients who took a probiotic mixture of L. acidophilus and L. bulgaricus. They documented that 80% of acne patients had some degree of clinical improvement, particularly effective in inflammatory acne. Later, an Italian study involving 40 patients found L. acidophilus and B. bifidum supplementation produced better clinical outcomes in acne as well as better tolerance and compliance with antibiotics [2].

After further analyzing the data, the researchers found that they could predict whether the probiotics would take hold in people's guts by examining their microbiome and gene expression in the gut taken at the start of the study. However, this prediction method needs to be confirmed in future studies. The researchers called for further research to better understand why some people resist colonization by probiotics, as that future research may enable researchers to counteract the resistance.

To obtain more probiotics, enjoy an assortment of fermented dairy foods including yogurt, kefir, and aged cheeses, all of which contain live cultures. The active cultures in yogurt will not only help with digestion, but also help us better absorb nutrients from our food. The FDA requires at least two strains of bacteria in all yogurts, though manufacturers can add more. Kefir is a liquid yogurt that is cultured five to eight times longer than yogurt, giving good bacteria more time to multiply. It contains as many as 12 strains of bacteria and is delicious in smoothies and overnight oats.
Probiotics are actually bacteria – the “good” kind. Our bodies have trillions of these microorganisms, some harmful but the majority of them beneficial. “Good” bacteria help break down food and keep the “bad” bacteria at bay. Probiotic bacteria are found in cultured dairy foods like yogurt, fermented vegetables like kimchi and sauerkraut, and foods fortified with probiotic bacterial cultures. They’re also available in capsules.
A number of probiotic products are on the market, including yogurts containing probiotics, as well as supplements and skin creams, and an estimated 3.9 million Americans use such products. Some studies suggest that probiotics may help with diarrhea or symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but strong evidence to support their use for most health conditions is lacking, according to the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health.
As you age, your body needs different supplements and vitamins to stay healthy. Renew Life 50+ Ultimate Flora Probiotic is a smart choice for adults over 50 because it is specifically formulated with seniors in mind. It has 30 billion live cultures and 12 strains of probiotics, including Bifidobacteria, which is a probiotic that decreases in your body as you age. Seniors develop less of the “good” bacteria as they age, and Ultimate Flora has three times the average live cultures in each dose to help replenish and protect gut and immune health. This 60-day supply should be refrigerated to maintain the live cultures.
Very few studies have actually documented survival of an administered probiotic as it transits the gut, by means of fecal recovery studies. One probiotic may not necessarily be translatable to other probiotic(s): for example, different Bifidobacterium species have different tolerances to acid and growth requirements and will have different fecal recovery rates [Matto et al. 2004; Takahashi et al. 2004].
Formulated specifically for men, these capsules from Garden of Life are vegetarian as well as gluten-free, dairy-free, and soy-free. They tout 50 billion cultures per serving and 15 probiotic strains, including Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria, which are resistant to stomach acid and bile. This probiotic is designed to help with constipation and gas as well as to promote colon health. The recommended daily dose is just one capsule per day, and it doesn’t have to be refrigerated.
Probiotics are actually bacteria – the “good” kind. Our bodies have trillions of these microorganisms, some harmful but the majority of them beneficial. “Good” bacteria help break down food and keep the “bad” bacteria at bay. Probiotic bacteria are found in cultured dairy foods like yogurt, fermented vegetables like kimchi and sauerkraut, and foods fortified with probiotic bacterial cultures. They’re also available in capsules.
Probiotics are live bacteria that are present in yogurt, other fermented foods, and in pills. They are promoted as a benefit to the human digestive system. Normally you have trillions upon trillions of bacteria within the colon. Normally we ingest bacteria every time we swallow. Many of these swallowed bacteria may be beneficial while most are simply innocuous and cause no problems. The question for everyone who takes a probiotic much beyond yogurt is whether they really are a health benefit. Here is what we know medically about probiotics.

The potential efficacy of probiotics to treat AAD depends on the probiotic strains and dosage.[83][84] One review recommended for children L. rhamnosus or Saccharomyces boulardii at 5 to 40 billion colony forming units/day, given the modest number needed to treat and the likelihood that adverse events are very rare.[13] The same review stated that probiotic use should be avoided in pediatric populations at risk for adverse events, such as severely debilitated or immune-compromised children.
Caution: As with any dietary or herbal supplement, you should advise your healthcare professional of the use of this product if you have any medical condition or are taking any medication. If you are nursing, pregnant, or considering pregnancy, consult your healthcare professional prior to using this product. Discontinue use and contact a healthcare professional if you experience an allergic reaction or side effect. Read label ingredients carefully before use and avoid use if known sensitivity to any of the ingredients. Do not exceed suggested use. Keep out of reach of children.
If you want to get to the root causes of what goes on inside your gut, look at what you’re putting at the end of your fork. If you consume a milkshake, hamburger, and French fries, you turn on genes that promote inflammation in your gut and your body. On the other hand, if you eat 2 cups of steamed broccoli, you will turn on anticancer and anti-inflammatory gene pathways. The foods you eat control your state of health, and the gut is the gateway to the rest of the body. Identifying and eliminating foods that rob your body of energy becomes a central focus in my program. Gluten, eggs, dairy, soy, most legumes, corn, and sugar (and, for some of you, nightshades) are inflammatory and make you and your gut sick. When my patients eliminate these problem foods for at least 28 days, they feel better, lose weight, and heal their gut.

Sherman P.M., Johnson-Henry K.C., Yeung H.P., Ngo P.S., Goulet J., Tompkins T.A. (2005) Probiotics reduce enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7- and enteropathogenic E. coli O127:H6-induced changes in polarized T84 epithelial cell monolayers by reducing bacterial adhesion and cytoskeletal rearrangements Infect Immun 73: 5183–5188 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
Lebwohl says IBS isn’t just about intestinal distress. For many IBS sufferers, it’s about the way our brain receives messages about pain. He describes the human colon as “almost reptilian” in the way that it contracts and relaxes throughout the day, but says these contractions are usually happening way below our threshold of consciousness, so we don’t even notice. In people with IBS, the neurotransmitters in our gut (yes, we have them in there too) may be sending severe distress signals to the brain about benign contractions happening in digestive tract.
Researchers found that probiotics can shorten diarrhea attacks in children. But they don't seem to work as well to prevent it. For childhood diarrhea, Saccharomyces boulardii, Lactobacillus GG, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus casei, or Lactobacillus rhamnosus may be helpful. Bifidobacterium bifidum combined with Streptococcus thermophilus can help keep kids safe from diarrhea caused by rotavirus.
The other way that probiotics help is the impact that they have on our immune system. Some believe that this role is the most important. Our immune system is our protection against germs. When it doesn't function properly, we can suffer from allergic reactions, autoimmune disorders (for example, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and rheumatoid arthritis), and infections (for example, infectious diarrhea, H. pylori, skin infections, and vaginal infections). By maintaining the correct balance from birth, the hope would be to prevent these ailments. Our immune system can benefit anytime that balanced is restored, so it's never too late.
That's the question driving a new line of research investigating the power of baby poop as a potential source of microbes that could contribute to healthier digestion. And experiments recently showed that certain types of bacteria extracted from baby feces could promote the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in mice, and in a medium simulating the human gut.
Diversity of strains - research has demonstrated that bacteria prefer to colonize in different parts of your digestive tract, where there are various ecological niches. The more probiotic strains you ingest, the more coverage you’ll provide for each of these niches. Each strain of bacteria also has its own different purpose, so choosing a formula with many different strains gives you that many more benefits.
There are numerous types of probiotics and each has different characteristics. They may be combined with others or appear on their own in powder, tablet or liquid dietary supplements. At the moment, foods that naturally contain probiotics are not eaten regularly in the UK and supplements are becoming more popular. The most common probiotics include lactobacillus acidophilus and bifidobacterium. These differ as they are made up of different types or strains of bacteria, and are recommended for different clinical conditions. Lactobacillus acidophilus have been clinically shown to lower the incidence of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and can also result in a shorter length of stay in hospital for some. In order to experience this benefit, a vast quantity of food containing probiotics would need to be consumed. It is therefore easier and more effective to take a recommended probiotic supplement. 
Probiotics have been shown to help reduce duration of pediatric acute diarrhea, decrease symptoms associated with taking antibiotics, manage symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome, reduce crying time in infants with colic and reduce relapses of ulcerative colitis. Certain probiotics may also inhibit the growth of Helicobacter pylori, bacteria that colonize the stomach and can cause ulcers and stomach cancer.
Dr. Michelle Schoffro Cook says there’s no single best strain of bacteria, though some strains, like L. Acidophilus or B. Bacterium, have wide-reaching effects. They often act as a starting point from which to add other strains with more specific impacts. Already have probiotics on hand or want to arm yourself with raw knowledge before you shop? The table below shows the research- and expert-backed strains we looked for in each use case:
Thirdly, the probiotic candidate must be a taxonomically defined microbe or combination of microbes (genus, species, and strain level). It is commonly admitted that most effects of probiotics are strain-specific and cannot be extended to other probiotics of the same genus or species.[113] This calls for a precise identification of the strain, i.e. genotypic and phenotypic characterization of the tested microorganism.[18]
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a multisymptom GI disorder with unclear etiology and pathogenesis. Changes in GI microflora in IBS patients have been reported by a number of investigators [Kassinen et al. 2007; Shanahan, 2007]. Recently, reports on variable prevalences of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in IBS have been published [Posserud et al. 2007; Lin, 2004]. IBS symptoms such as bloating or flatulence have been attributed to possible alterations in the intestinal microflora and probiotics have been used empirically to treat these difficult symptoms [Kim et al. 2003, 2005]. Postinfectious IBS may begin after a bout of acute gastroenteritis suggesting that altered microflora or induction of an altered inflammatory or immune state in the bowel may lead to altered bowel function and IBS symptoms [Collins et al. 2009]. An increase in lymphocytes and an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines have been described [Spiller et al. 2000].
What are the gut microbiota and human microbiome? Microbes are commonly associated with disease, but there are millions inside the human body, and some provide distinct benefits. The microbiota and microbiome of the human body have been researched intensively in recent years. Find out about what we now know about them and what they mean for health. Read now

The GI tract plays an important role as an interface between the host and the environment. It is colonized by about 10 trillion microbes of many different species, amounting to 1–2 kg in weight [O’Hara and Shanahan, 2006]. Only a minority (300–500) of these species can be cultured in vitro and studied [O’Hara and Shanahan, 2006]. Intestinal epithelial cells have the capacity to distinguish pathogenic from nonpathogenic bacteria on the basis of their invasiveness and the presence of flagella, although the exact mechanisms that allow them to do this have not been elucidated fully [Borchers et al. 2009].
Reviews looking at the treatment or prevention of vulvovaginal candidiasis in women, pneumonia in patients hooked up to respirators, and colds in otherwise healthy people show some positive results. But the authors note that the studies are almost all of low quality, small in size, and often funded by companies with significant conflicts of interest.
Researchers found that probiotics can shorten diarrhea attacks in children. But they don't seem to work as well to prevent it. For childhood diarrhea, Saccharomyces boulardii, Lactobacillus GG, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus casei, or Lactobacillus rhamnosus may be helpful. Bifidobacterium bifidum combined with Streptococcus thermophilus can help keep kids safe from diarrhea caused by rotavirus.
But before you start reaching for the calcium supplements, there may be a more effective way to support your bone health. Like many other parts of the body, the health of your bones is closely tied to the health of your gut, especially your intestines. Temporary intestinal inflammation can trigger an immune response in which your body releases interleukins, proteins that have an immune function but also absorb bone tissue. If the temporary inflammation remains unaddressed, these molecules can take a toll on your bones, eventually weakening them.14
Some companies have been around for years, and you may know their names. Those that have made probiotics for a while likely have tested and studied them over and over. It's smarter to choose a product from them over one from a maker you don't know. Check a third-party certifier (like ConsumerLab or the USP) to see if they have tested the product and found that it’s safe and reliable. If you're in doubt, ask your doctor.
Researchers found that probiotics can shorten diarrhea attacks in children. But they don't seem to work as well to prevent it. For childhood diarrhea, Saccharomyces boulardii, Lactobacillus GG, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus casei, or Lactobacillus rhamnosus may be helpful. Bifidobacterium bifidum combined with Streptococcus thermophilus can help keep kids safe from diarrhea caused by rotavirus.
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The first major finding was that many people were essentially resistant to any effect from probiotics and their gut microbiome did not change after taking them.  Of 19 people in the study taking probiotics consisting of 11 of the most commonly found strains, only 8 had any notable colonization of their gut with the bacteria in the probiotics, with 3 people considered to have significant colonization and 5 people with "mild" colonization.
If you struggle with anxiety... Your brain and gut talk on the reg, and both produce neurotransmitters such as serotonin (the happiness chemical). Experts think balancing your guy may help treat anxiety, because it promotes better communications between the two. Opt for lactobacillus plantarum and bifidobacterium bi-fi0dum, two strains for anxiety, per research. Try 10 billion CFUs for three to five days. If your tum feels fine, go up by 10 bill.
A number of probiotic products are on the market, including yogurts containing probiotics, as well as supplements and skin creams, and an estimated 3.9 million Americans use such products. Some studies suggest that probiotics may help with diarrhea or symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but strong evidence to support their use for most health conditions is lacking, according to the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health.
That’s why adding probiotics and prebiotics to your diet provide the best possible outcome from a bacterial perspective. It isn’t always easy to eat naturally prebiotic-enriched foods, however, because they are often distasteful to eat in quantity. Would you enjoy eating several cups of raw onion or garlic every day? Probably not. Other foods that contain prebiotic fiber, such as bread and bananas, are high in calories. Consuming hundreds of calories of these foods every day is counterproductive if you’re trying to lose weight.
Although probiotics are associated with a number of powerful health benefits, not all supplements are created equal. The best probiotic supplements should come from high-quality brands and should contain a good mix of different beneficial strains. Furthermore, steer clear of probiotic products that are packed with added sugar or extra ingredients, which can negate many of the health-promoting properties.
To boost the immune system, B. Lactis is a promising choice. One study had participants taking either a probiotic or a placebo for six weeks. At the end of this period, researchers measured antibody levels and found greater increases in antibodies of the B. lactis group than in placebo participants, concluding that this probiotic may help improve immune function [1]. In addition, a 2009 study found that supplementation of the strain B. lactis DN-173 led to self-reported improvements in digestive comfort [2].
Popular probiotic foods include yogurt, kimchi, sauerkraut, and kombucha. While delicious, these foods don’t claim specific amounts of whatever microorganisms they may contain. By contrast, Probiotic All-Flora is optimally formulated with the right amounts of the right strains to deliver researched benefits. The label lists out the DNA-tested flora that make up that ideal 10 billion CFU in just one capsule daily. So probiotic supplements actually have more reliable strain benefits than probiotic foods.

If you struggle with post-meal gas, bloating, and other problems, your body might not be making sufficient digestive enzymes. Gut imbalances, stress, and age are among the factors that inhibit the digestive process. For many patients, supplements that replenish digestive enzymes can reduce or eliminate those problems, especially while you’re healing your gut.
It has 30 billion cultures per serving and contains 12 strains of soil-based probiotics to promote regular bowel movements and overall colon health. It also touts a unique whole-food blend with Homeostatic Soil Organisms, which basically makes up for the nutrients we miss out on due to the pesticides, herbicides, and other chemicals that typically affect food production today. Plus, this probiotic has a devoted following of fans who credit it with improvements in their digestive health.
Your digestive system (often referred to as “your gut”) is an extremely complex environment that performs many vital functions. The small intestine acts as the main site of enzymatic digestion of foods and absorption of nutrients. The large intestine or colon absorbs large quantities of water and electrolytes and helps to remove waste matter and other substances your body does not use. The large intestine is also responsible for the regulation of intestinal well-being, particularly through its complex microflora that contributes to the maintenance of intestinal function. 

Sure, why the hell not? Lebwohl says: "Essentially a yeast infection is an overgrowth of a kind of fungus. In theory, a probiotic could potentially have an effect of the microbiome of the vagina, though proof of its effectiveness hasn’t really been established.” No harm in giving it a try as long as you don't succumb to the temptation to put yogurt in your vagina.
While Lebwohl isn't comfortable endorsing a specific brand publicly, he did say "a widely used brand in which the compound is bifidobacteria or lactobaccilus seems like a reasonable way to go in a patient who is eager to give this a try, but would be best done under the supervision of a healthcare professional.” He does advise looking for a supplement with between 1 billion and 10 billion colony-forming units, or CFUs.
Chlorella, a type of green algae, is thought to be one of the most nutrient-dense foods available. It contains chlorella growth factor (CGF), a complex of proteins, vitamins, and sugars that works with fiber in the GI tract to promote the growth of healthy intestinal flora. It also contains chlorophyll, a potent antioxidant that binds to toxins and helps remove them from the body. “Chlorella is known for detoxification, but I’ve found that it does wonders for promoting normal GI function,” Dr. Rawls says.
Probiotics: Health benefits, facts, and research Every human on the planet has microbes living in their body. While bacteria get a bad reputation, many can promote good health. Probiotics are a type of 'good bacteria' that provide health benefits for the host. The health benefits of probiotics include treatment of diarrhea and irritable bowel syndrome. Read now
Prebiotics do contribute to a happy, symptom-free gut in the sense that they serve as fuel for the good microbes that help keep the digestive process humming. So while on their own they don’t do much, you absolutely need prebiotics for gut microbiome support and healthy digestion. Natural foods are by far the best source — supplements aren’t necessary if you’re eating a healthy, balanced, and veggie-rich diet.
In a separate study involving 21 healthy volunteers, also published today in Cell, the same group of researchers found that taking probiotics after treatment with broad spectrum antibiotics may actually delay the return of people's normal gut microbiome. This goes against the idea that probiotics can help "repopulate" people's gut bacteria after antibiotics wipe them out.
Microbes are tiny organisms (bacteria, viruses, parasites, or fungi) -- so tiny that millions can fit into the eye of a needle -- that are so powerful that an imbalance in the body is related to numerous diseases. These microorganisms can be found in almost every part of the human body, living on the skin, in the nose, and in the gut. There are trillions of these microorganisms in our bodies. They outnumber human cells by 10 to one, but due to their small size, they only make up 1%-3% of a body's total mass.
Our body normally has what we would call good or helpful bacteria and bad or harmful bacteria. Maintaining the correct balance between these bacteria is necessary for optimal health. Age, genetics, and diet may influence the composition of the bacteria in the body (microbiota). An imbalance is called dysbiosis, and this has possible links to diseases of the intestinal tract, including ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, celiac disease, and Crohn's disease, as well as more systemic diseases such as obesity and type 1 and type 2 diabetes. How do you know if you need probiotics? This article will help you decide.
Did someone say chocolate? Yes, you can have your probiotics and eat your chocolate too with these Digestive Advantage probiotic bites from Schiff. Easy to pop, they contain BC20, a probiotic that the manufacturer says survives stomach acid better than other probiotics and even yogurt. Made with dark chocolate, they contain just 30 calories per serving (one chew) and no artificial colors, flavors or preservatives.

^ Altenhoefer, Artur; Oswald, Sibylle; Sonnenborn, Ulrich; Enders, Corinne; Schulze, Juergen; Hacker, Joerg; Oelschlaeger, Tobias A (April 2004). "The probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 interferes with invasion of human intestinal epithelial cells by different enteroinvasive bacterial pathogens". FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology. 40 (3): 223–229. doi:10.1016/S0928-8244(03)00368-7.
Clostridium difficile colitis (CDC) has not consistently been shown to be prevented by probiotic cotreatment in a number of studies [Pillai and Nelson, 2008; McFarland, 2006]. In the largest study to date S. boulardii, at a dose of 2 × 1010 per day, in combination with vancomycin and metronidazole was associated with a significant decrease in risk of CDC recurrence [McFarland et al. 1994]. In addition, the study by Hickson and colleagues above showed efficacy in preventing CDC [Hickson et al. 2007]. Other studies, however, have not confirmed this benefit. A recent Cochrane review, limited by the small number of quality studies, concluded that there was insufficient evidence to recommend probiotic use even in combination with vancomycin and metronidazole [Pillai and Nelson, 2008]. In practice, however, many clinicians tend to recommend probiotics after antibiotic treatment, particularly in patients who have had CDC relapse.

The stress response can alter the natural balance of healthy bacteria in your gut, causing the gut ecology to shift in favor of a more hostile group of bacteria. When patients with gut issues visit me, I ask what they do to relieve and manage their stress, and often they say, "nothing." Many people are majorly lacking in the self-care department. They believe they don’t have the time or that stress management is a luxury, but incorporating meditation and a few yoga stretches as part of a daily routine can take as little as 10 minutes. Those few minutes will pay off with big rewards for your gut and general sense of well-being.
A closer look at the science underlying microbe-based treatments, however, shows that most of the health claims for probiotics are pure hype. The majority of studies to date have failed to reveal any benefits in individuals who are already healthy. The bacteria seem to help only those people suffering from a few specific intestinal disorders. “There is no evidence to suggest that people with normal gastrointestinal tracts can benefit from taking probiotics,” says Matthew Ciorba, a gastroenterologist at Washington University in St. Louis. “If you're not in any distress, I would not recommend them.” Emma Allen-Vercoe, a microbiologist at the University of Guelph in Ontario, agrees. For the most part, she says, “the claims that are made are enormously inflated.”
Gut flora makes up 70 to 80 percent of the human immune system. Too much bad bacteria can inflame and destroy intestinal walls, enter the bloodstream, and trigger a multitude of health issues — constipation, depression, skin problems, autoimmune disease, and even bad breath. Adding good bacteria protects the digestive tract from the harmful bacteria in sugars, pesticides, and saturated fats.
“There can always be differences between the species, things we don’t anticipate, which is why it’s really important we investigate thoroughly with human trials,” says Jennifer L. Pluznick, Ph.D., assistant professor of physiology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. For example, gut bacteria may bring blood pressure down in one scenario but affect metabolism and immune responses in unexpected ways. “I’m hoping that in the next couple of years, we’ll start seeing how these all these factors and findings apply to humans,” Pluznick says.

The large intestine is home to hundreds of trillions of bacteria. Fortunately, most are neutral or even beneficial, performing many vital body functions. For example, they help keep “bad” bacteria at bay, play a role in immunity, help us digest food and absorb nutrients and may even have anticancer effects. But will consuming them as probiotics in foods or capsules make a notable difference to your health—especially if you are already healthy? Here’s a look at the evidence.
^ Shane AL, Cabana MD, Vidry S, Merenstein D, Hummelen R, Ellis CL, Heimbach JT, Hempel S, Lynch SV, Sanders ME, et al. (2010). ": Guide to designing, conducting, publishing and communicating results of clinical studies involving probiotic applications in human participants". Gut Microbes. 1 (4): 243–253. doi:10.4161/gmic.1.4.12707. PMC 3023606. PMID 21327031. 
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