Because chronic inflammation is at the root of many diseases and health conditions, the fact that probiotics exert this effect in the gut, where 80 percent of the immune system lies, is crucial. The immune-boosting benefits of probiotics seem to be particularly helpful for the quality of life of seniors. Currently, research is underway to test whether probiotics can “reduce inflammation and improve gut immune health in HIV-positive individuals” who haven’t yet undergone treatment.
Supplements play an important role when the diet is not adequate to supply our needs. In the case of probiotics, one's diet is the ideal source for probiotics. These are live bacteria and need to be carefully monitored, stored, and combined for the health benefits that one would be taking them for. At this time, supplements are not monitored in the U.S. the way that food or medication is. They fall under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA). This requires that the dietary supplement or dietary ingredient manufacturer be responsible for ensuring that a dietary supplement or ingredient is safe before it is marketed. The only time that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) may get involved is if action is needed to be taken against a manufacturer after the supplement is marketed and then found to be unsafe. This means that as much as we may know about probiotics, we can't be certain of the safety or content of the supplements available to us.
Russian microbiologist Elie Metchnikoff (1845-1916) was the first to associate the large amounts of fermented dairy products with the good health and longevity of Bulgarians back in 1907. He proposed that the acid-producing organisms in fermented dairy products could prevent what he called "fouling" in the large intestine. He believed if eaten regularly, these foods could lead to a longer, healthier life. One version of the Old Testament even attributes Abraham's long life — 175 years — to the "consumption of sour milk." Fermented milk products may have also been used to treat illnesses of the digestive tract during Roman times.
“Clients with tummy troubles, especially diarrhea, gas, and bloating have good success with Florastor,” says Cheryl Harris, a dietitian in Fairfax, VA. “It contains Saccharomyces boulardii, a special strain of probiotic yeast. Most probiotics are killed by antibiotics, but because Florastor is a probiotic yeast that encourages healthy bacteria, it’s an ideal one to take along with antibiotics.” Don’t miss 11 diseases that can start with gut bacteria.
To obtain more probiotics, enjoy an assortment of fermented dairy foods including yogurt, kefir, and aged cheeses, all of which contain live cultures. The active cultures in yogurt will not only help with digestion, but also help us better absorb nutrients from our food. The FDA requires at least two strains of bacteria in all yogurts, though manufacturers can add more. Kefir is a liquid yogurt that is cultured five to eight times longer than yogurt, giving good bacteria more time to multiply. It contains as many as 12 strains of bacteria and is delicious in smoothies and overnight oats.
The GI tract plays an important role as an interface between the host and the environment. It is colonized by about 10 trillion microbes of many different species, amounting to 1–2 kg in weight [O’Hara and Shanahan, 2006]. Only a minority (300–500) of these species can be cultured in vitro and studied [O’Hara and Shanahan, 2006]. Intestinal epithelial cells have the capacity to distinguish pathogenic from nonpathogenic bacteria on the basis of their invasiveness and the presence of flagella, although the exact mechanisms that allow them to do this have not been elucidated fully [Borchers et al. 2009].
The bacteria in your gut—both visitors and residents—need to eat too. Enter prebiotics, nondigestible carbs that feed friendly bacteria and help them multiply. They may even be helpful on their own, at recalibrating microbiota that have been thrown out of whack by stress; a recent study found mice who ate prebiotics slept better after a stressful experience. Hutkins advises taking them daily in the form of food, not pills, because it's difficult to get the needed amount from a supplement. Prebiotics are found in wholegrain oatmeal, bananas, onions, garlic, and asparagus.
Survival past stomach acids - probiotic powder in capsule form is ill prepared when it comes to protecting the delicate bacteria from being pulverized by the harsh environment of the stomach acids. Worse, most of the organisms tend to die off before they reach their intended destination due to moisture that gets trapped between the capsule shell and the powder.
There have been a multitude of recent studies indicating that the best probiotic supplement should definitely include this beneficial strain of bacteria. In addition to its digestion-boosting benefits, Saccharomyces boulardii has powerful antimicrobial and antitoxin effects, which can help block the growth of bacteria and parasites while also flushing out harmful toxins. (4)
Gas (intestinal gas) means different things to different people. Everyone has gas and eliminates it by belching, burping, or farting (flatulence). Bloating or abdominal distension is a subjective feeling that the stomach is larger or fuller than normal. Belching or burping occurs when gas is expelled from the stomach out through the mouth. Flatulence or farting occurs when intestinal gas is passed from the anus.
We also found strains linked to five other health benefits like weight loss and lowering cholesterol. We feature options for those cases below, but they aren’t top picks because those use cases aren’t as heavily researched as immune health or IBS relief. Still, chances are any probiotic supplement is going to make some improvement to your digestive health, so don’t be afraid to experiment. 

The price is great on these, but definitely BEWARE! I do not recommend taking 2 pills in the beginning if you have not taken probiotics in the past! I had been eating very clean for a couple months, but got a sinus infection and was recommended by a nutritionist to take a probiotic to boost gut health since I was on antibiotics. Anyway-taking 2 pulls a day gave me horrible diarrhea, until I figured out they were causing the issue and cut back the pills to one a day! Everything fine since then, will try to build back up to 2 a day...I also take at bedtime just in case there would be any stomach issues!
Because of the way bacteria spread from the rectum to the vagina and urinary tract in women, probiotics have been a proposed remedy for urinary tract infection (UTI) in women. A 2012 review confirmed that probiotics seem to be effective in preventing recurrent UTIs, but more research is required before a determination can be made. The healthy strains of bacteria that help achieve this are also somewhat less common, which means proper treatment could be logistically complicated.
Important Disclaimer: The information contained on Health Ambition is intended for informational and educational purposes only. Any statements made on this website have not been evaluated by the FDA and any information or products discussed are not intended to diagnose, cure, treat or prevent any disease or illness. Please consult a healthcare practitioner before making changes to your diet or taking supplements that may interfere with medications.
If you struggle with post-meal gas, bloating, and other problems, your body might not be making sufficient digestive enzymes. Gut imbalances, stress, and age are among the factors that inhibit the digestive process. For many patients, supplements that replenish digestive enzymes can reduce or eliminate those problems, especially while you’re healing your gut.

"Probiotics applied topically sit on the skin's surface and prevent the skin cells from seeing the bad bacteria and parasites that can cause this immune system response," confirms Engelman. "This is known as 'bacterial interference,' as probiotics protect the skin and interfere with the ability of bad bugs like bacteria and parasites to provoke an immune reaction.
Antibiotics are a common treatment for children, with 11% to 40% of antibiotic-treated children developing diarrhea.[13] Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) results from an imbalance in the colonic microbiota caused by antibiotic therapy.[13] These microbial community alterations result in changes in carbohydrate metabolism, with decreased short-chain fatty acid absorption and osmotic diarrhea as a result. A 2015 Cochrane review concluded that a protective effect of some probiotics existed for AAD in children.[13] In adults, some probiotics showed a beneficial role in reducing the occurrence of AAD and treating Clostridium difficile disease.[14]
In the small, new study, the researchers isolated 10 bacterial strains — five species of Lactobacillus bacteria, and five species of Enterococcus — in samples from 34 babies, identifying the strains as good candidates for crafting a probiotic cocktail of microbes that could survive in a human host's gut and stimulate SCFA production, according to the study.
Our body normally has what we would call good or helpful bacteria and bad or harmful bacteria. Maintaining the correct balance between these bacteria is necessary for optimal health. Age, genetics, and diet may influence the composition of the bacteria in the body (microbiota). An imbalance is called dysbiosis, and this has possible links to diseases of the intestinal tract, including ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, celiac disease, and Crohn's disease, as well as more systemic diseases such as obesity and type 1 and type 2 diabetes. How do you know if you need probiotics? This article will help you decide.
Probiotics also seem to ameliorate irritable bowel syndrome, a chronic disease characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and frequent diarrhea or constipation (or a mix of the two). A 2014 review of more than 30 studies, published in the American Journal of Gastroenterology by an international team of researchers, determined that in some cases, probiotics help to relieve the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome for reasons that are not entirely clear, although it may be that they impede the growth of harmful microbes. The researchers concluded, however, that they did not have enough data to recommend any particular strains of bacteria. Microbiologists often caution that a promising study on a single strain of a particular species of bacteria should not be taken as proof that all probiotics work equally well. “Bacterial strains are so genetically different from one another, and everybody has a different gut microbiota,” Allen-Vercoe says. “There will probably never be a one-size-fits-all probiotic.”
Bacillus subtilis stands out from other strains of bacteria because it’s one of the few types that is able to grow and thrive in a variety of diverse environments, including in soil, on the roots of plants and in the gastrointestinal tracts of animals. (5) Animal models suggest that it may be in the running for the best probiotic for diarrhea, noting that it can improve both growth performance and digestive health. (6)

Most bacteria are included through the fermentation process. Fermentation helps extend the shelf life of perishable foods. It is a slow decomposition process of organic substances induced by microorganisms or enzymes that essentially convert carbohydrates to alcohols or organic acids. The lactic acid supplies the bacteria that then add the health benefits to the food. You can purchase foods that are fermented or ferment them yourself.

Dr. Vincent M. Pedre, medical director of Pedre Integrative Health and president of Dr. Pedre Wellness, is a board-certified internist in private practice in New York City since 2004. His philosophy and practices are a blend of both Western and Eastern medical traditions. He is a clinical instructor in medicine at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine and is certified in yoga and medical acupuncture. His unique methodology is best described as integrative or defined by a functional, systems-based approach to health. With his holistic understanding of both sides of the equation, he can help each patient choose the best course of action for their ailments to provide both immediate and long-term relief. His holistic approach incorporates positive, preventive health and wellness lifestyle choices. Dr. Pedre Wellness is a growing wellness platform offering health-enhancing programs along with informative social media and lifestyle products, such as dietary supplements, books, and weight-loss programs.
A number of probiotic products are on the market, including yogurts containing probiotics, as well as supplements and skin creams, and an estimated 3.9 million Americans use such products. Some studies suggest that probiotics may help with diarrhea or symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but strong evidence to support their use for most health conditions is lacking, according to the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health.

Look, it makes sense that the gut would be ground zero for easing all kinds of ailments. In the past decade, scientists have discovered that the three pounds of microbes inside the digestive system—some 40 trillion bacteria, fungi, and viruses collectively known as the microbiota—aren't squatters mooching off a nutrient-rich environment. They're like a living organ unto themselves, working with the body to lap up nutrients from food, squeeze out germy invaders, and calibrate our immune systems. And since changes in the microbiota have been linked to gastrointestinal conditions like irritable bowel syndrome, adding "good" bacteria in the form of probiotics should boost your health.


Dr. Michelle Schoffro Cook says there’s no single best strain of bacteria, though some strains, like L. Acidophilus or B. Bacterium, have wide-reaching effects. They often act as a starting point from which to add other strains with more specific impacts. Already have probiotics on hand or want to arm yourself with raw knowledge before you shop? The table below shows the research- and expert-backed strains we looked for in each use case:
“There can always be differences between the species, things we don’t anticipate, which is why it’s really important we investigate thoroughly with human trials,” says Jennifer L. Pluznick, Ph.D., assistant professor of physiology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. For example, gut bacteria may bring blood pressure down in one scenario but affect metabolism and immune responses in unexpected ways. “I’m hoping that in the next couple of years, we’ll start seeing how these all these factors and findings apply to humans,” Pluznick says.
But other research, especially in healthy adults, shows little benefit from taking probiotics. And in fact, it may even introduce new symptoms: One small study of 30 subjects, published in the journal Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology, showed that taking a lot of probiotics can result in symptoms like brain fog and bloating in those using them for GI complaints.
“I’d probably stay away from store brands and pay a little extra for the name brand that’s been studied,” Dr. Cresci adds. “Ideally, look for a product that’s been tested for whatever you’re looking to address. It might say it helps with IBS, but you wouldn’t take that same product if you were taking antibiotics. You would want a product that helps with immunity. That’s where a lot of people get confused.”

Despite the uncertainty, foods enriched with probiotics and probiotic supplements are increasingly popular in the U.S. Finding probiotic supplements in grocery and health food stores is easy. For example, you may already know that yogurt contains probiotic bacteria such as lactobacillus and bifidobacteria. Many clinical studies suggest these bacteria relieve symptoms related to lactose intolerance.
SCFA molecules are a subset of fatty acids that are churned out by some types of gut microbes during the fermentation of fiber. They're associated with maintaining gut health and protecting against disease, so a probiotic containing baby-poop microbes could provide health benefits by boosting SCFA production in a compromised digestive system, researchers reported in the new study. [5 Ways Gut Bacteria Affect Your Health]
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