Previous studies have been contradictory, with some yielding more positive results about the benefits of probiotics, but most of them looked at probiotics in stool samples, not directly in the gut itself. In the new research, the scientists used more invasive methods to take samples of gut bacteria directly from different areas of the digestive system.
There have been multiple additional studies which link stress to changes in gut bacteria, so there does appear to be some sort of link. But Lebwohl says it’s not enough to recommend widespread use in clinical practice. He referred to these as “hypothesis-generating studies,” which should lead to concrete clinical trials in which the probiotics are tested against a placebo. “These are important studies,” he says. “But it’s premature to call them practice-changing studies.”

Although people often think of bacteria and other microorganisms as harmful “germs,” many microorganisms help our bodies function properly. For example, bacteria that are normally present in our intestines help digest food, destroy disease-causing microorganisms, and produce vitamins. Large numbers of microorganisms live on and in our bodies. Many of the microorganisms in probiotic products are the same as or similar to microorganisms that naturally live in our bodies.
Bottom line: Probiotics are a promising field of research and may one day be used to treat or help prevent many disorders. But there’s not enough solid evidence to recommend their widespread use. Vague claims that probiotics "support good digestive health" are meaningless. Larger, longer and better studies are needed to test specific strains for specific conditions and to determine the proper doses and regimens.
Because probiotics are taken by mouth, their efficacy depends on how well they can stand up to the very acidic environment of the stomach and gastrointestinal tract. The highest quality probiotics will pass through your stomach still intact and move into the intestines where nutrients are absorbed. This is where probiotics do most of their healing and good work.
However, it’s not just digestive woes that probiotics can help address. A clinical case series followed 300 patients who took a probiotic mixture of L. acidophilus and L. bulgaricus. They documented that 80% of acne patients had some degree of clinical improvement, particularly effective in inflammatory acne. Later, an Italian study involving 40 patients found L. acidophilus and B. bifidum supplementation produced better clinical outcomes in acne as well as better tolerance and compliance with antibiotics [2].
If you want to try supplements, he suggests taking them daily for at least three months and keeping a journal to see if you notice any improvements. If you won’t remember to take them daily, however, don’t even bother. Because the strains of bacteria in supplements are not the same ones already living in your gut, it takes a few days for them to populate and build up in your gut, and then you must continue to deliver them via supplements to maintain any activity.
Bottom line: Probiotics are a promising field of research and may one day be used to treat or help prevent many disorders. But there’s not enough solid evidence to recommend their widespread use. Vague claims that probiotics "support good digestive health" are meaningless. Larger, longer and better studies are needed to test specific strains for specific conditions and to determine the proper doses and regimens.
Having a healthy gut flora means an abundance for your health, digestion, well-being, and even beauty! As we saw last week, there’s ongoing communication between your GI and your brain, known as the gut brain axis. This means a healthy gut can benefit the regularity of your digestion as well as cognitive function like mood and depression, and even the health and appearance of your skin.
For Irritable Bowel Syndrome, patients who respond to a probiotic might take that in the long term, Lebwohl says, so as to maintain symptom control. With something like antibiotic-related diarrhea, you'd take it for a defined period of time until symptoms are gone. "This has been studied in children and adults and while study results have varied, meta-analyses suggest that probiotics can be protective in this context," he adds.

While more research is necessary to fully understand the benefits of different probiotic strains, we do know that not all probiotics are created equal. The Lactobacilli, for instance, live in our digestive, urinary, and genital systems and can be found in some fermented foods like yogurt. Bifidobacteria normally live in the intestines as lactic acid bacteria, and are also found in fermented foods. According to nutrition expert Alex Caspero, RD, “For certain conditions, you want to ensure you’re taking the strand that is most likely to benefit you.” Here’s a simple breakdown to help you determine the best probiotic for you.
"The proprietary formula in this lotion supports a healthy microbiome of your skin promoting a more hydrated, stronger barrier function and protection from pathogens without harming the good stuff. Throw away your antibacterial soap and hand sanitizer and use this all over after your shower and after washing your hands," says Astarita, who is also a fan of the Nerium Prolistic Powder Pre & Probiotic Plus Vitamins ($45) and Be Well Probiotic Powder ($46) by Dr. Frank Lipman.
Probiotics health benefits includes supporting digestion, preventing and treating diarrhea, supporting oral health, improving a few mental health conditions, guaranteeing a healthy heart, relieving allergies and eczema, boosting immunity, taking care of belly fat, supporting vaginal health, treating irritable bowl syndrome, reducing blood pressure levels, preventing cancer, and alleviating respiratory disorder.
Probiotics also play a crucial role in lowering bad cholesterol. People who consume yogurt and other sources of probiotics report lowered LDL levels. Since a few lactic acid producing bacteria reduce cholesterol by breaking down bile in the gut, they prevent it from being reabsorbed again in the gut. This prevents the bile from entering into the bloodstream as cholesterol.

Probiotics are a therapeutic class being increasingly used for a variety of GI disorders. Probiotics appear to alter intestinal microflora and may exert their effect(s) by a variety of mechanisms. Many species of probiotics exist and it is generally accepted that all probiotics are not created equal. Efficacy may be due to a single strain or multiple strains or a combination of different probiotics. There is good evidence to support the efficacy of S. boulardii and LABs and the combination of the two for AAD, VSL#3 for pouchitis, and B. infantis 35624 for IBS. Probiotics decrease the duration of symptoms in acute infectious diarrhea. Probiotics, including E. coli Nissle 1917, LGG, and VSL#3 are as effective as standard therapy (mesalamine) in inducing or maintaining remission in UC or CD. When added to standard therapy, probiotics do not provide additional benefit compared with standard therapy alone. Most probiotics tested to date are not more effective than placebo in inducing or maintaining IBD remission.
Fifthly and finally, probiotics must be supplied in adequate numbers, which may be defined as the number able to trigger the targeted effect on the host.[citation needed] It depends on strain specificity, process, and matrix, as well as the targeted effect. Most of the reported benefits demonstrated with the traditional probiotics have been observed after ingestion of a concentration around 107 to 108 probiotic cells per gram, with a serving size around 100 to 200 mg per day.[18][not in citation given]

Everything you need to know about inflammation Inflammation indicates that the body is fighting something harmful and trying to heal itself. It can be short-term and acute or longer-term and chronic. Find out here about diseases that cause inflammation and some of the drugs and herbal treatments that can help, plus foods that may ease or worsen inflammation. Read now
In 2015, the global retail market value for probiotics was US$41 billion, including sales of probiotic supplements, fermented milk products, and yogurt, which alone accounted for 75% of total consumption.[42] Innovation in probiotic products in 2015 was mainly from supplements, which produced US$4 billion and was projected to grow 37% globally by 2020.[42] Consumption of yogurt products in China has increased by 20% per year since 2014.[43]

If you're healthy and want to stay that way... Shoot for 50 to 100 billion CFUs of a combo of lactobcillus and bifidobacterium. Starting with a large amount of CFUs will either keep you riding high (by supporting immunity) or trigger small but yucky reactions, like gas or nausea. If you notice those, scale back to 50 billion, then 20 bill, until you feel like your usual (but better) self.
The gut microbiota has been implicated in diseases ranging from obesity to Parkinson's disease and depression. Little wonder then that commercial probiotics have gained widespread popularity and are now estimated to command a US$37 billion market worldwide. But with research into the microbiome still in its infancy, increasing evidence suggests that both commercial and clinical use of probiotics is outpacing the science.

For guys who prefer to take a swig rather than swallow a pill, there are these liquid probiotic drops from Probonix. The grape-flavored adult liquid is formulated to help with everything from bloating and gas to sinus issues and allergies. Containing 12 strains of probiotics and 1 billion cultures per serving, the manufacturer says it passes into your gut 10 times more effectively than other probiotics.
Michael Jessimy is a Reg. Pharmacist, Bodybuilder, Nutrition Consultant, Fitness Pro. He is a specialist fitness writer that can easily craft pieces which are both informative and easy to read. Michael is a certified medical write and a qualified pharmacist that makes medical writing easily understandable by the general population. Michael Jessimy range of expertise encompasses pharmaceutical and medical writing, White Paper production, as well as Fitness and Bodybuilding consultation.
She totally did, but you may have noticed that you don't see those yogurt commercials anymore. That’s because in 2010, the Federal Trade Commission in conjunction with 39 states' attorney generals banned those ads, finding that the Dannon Company had no scientific evidence to back up their claims,. Dannon had to pay $21 million to resolve the associated investigations.
It’s important to note that there are different types of strains of probiotics. The probiotics benefits of one probiotic strain may be completely different from the health benefits seen from another probiotic. If you want to use probiotics to address a specific health concern, it’s vital to select the right probiotic for the right condition — or you can consume a wide range of probiotics in your food to be covered.
Dr. Michelle Schoffro Cook says there’s no single best strain of bacteria, though some strains, like L. Acidophilus or B. Bacterium, have wide-reaching effects. They often act as a starting point from which to add other strains with more specific impacts. Already have probiotics on hand or want to arm yourself with raw knowledge before you shop? The table below shows the research- and expert-backed strains we looked for in each use case:

Myriad factors – antibiotics, diet, stress, and age, among them – affect the balance of diverse microbes present in your gut. While you can replenish your gut bacteria by eating well and incorporating natural probiotics (ex. yogurt and kefir) into a healthy diet, these processes can take weeks or months; taking a regular probiotic is an easy and effective way to ensure your gut (and immune system) stays healthy, always.
Questions and concerns have been raised, however, about the safety of probiotic administration in the setting of a severe illness. Probiotic sepsis is the most feared complication related to probiotic administration [Boyle et al. 2006]. Lactobacillus is a rare but documented cause of endocarditis in adults [Cannon et al. 2005]. There are several reports in the literature of bacteremia in adults and children in the setting of probiotic administration [De Groote et al. 2005; Land et al. 2005; Kunz et al. 2004, 2005; Mackay et al. 1999; Rautio et al. 1999]. In addition, several cases of Saccharomyces boulardii fungemia have been reported in the literature [Cherifi et al. 2004; Henry et al. 2004; Cassone et al. 2003; Lestin et al. 2003; Riquelme et al. 2003; Lherm et al. 2002; Cesaro et al. 2000; Hennequin et al. 2000; Perapoch et al. 2000; Rijnders et al. 2000; Niault et al. 1999; Bassetti et al. 1998; Fredenucci et al. 1998; Pletincx et al. 1995], including two series in which the fungi spread to neighboring patients who were not taking the probiotic [Cassone et al. 2003; Perapoch et al. 2000]. This spread was thought to be due to contamination of central catheters in patients who had intestinal surgery (jejunostomy) or chronic illnesses (valvular heart disease), and who were immunocompromised. Only one case of probiotic sepsis was thought to have been directly fatal [Lestin et al. 2003]. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed using probiotic prophylaxis (six different strains of viable bacteria: L. acidophilus, L. casei, L. salivarius, L. lactis, B. bifidum, and B. lactis) in a total daily dose of 1010 bacteria orally twice daily for 28 days in patients hospitalized with severe acute pancreatitis. This showed no decrease in infectious complications but increased mortality (16%) in the probiotics group in comparison with the placebo group (6%, relative risk [RR] 2.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22–5.25). Nine of the 152 patients in the probiotics group developed bowel ischemia, eight of whom died, compared with none in the placebo group [Besselink et al. 2008].

No matter how many superfoods you eat, your body won’t be able to benefit from them if your gut environment isn’t teeming with healthy bacteria. You see, enzymes and digestive bacteria help to break down the food you eat into molecules that make their way into your bloodstream to nourish your body. Inadequate or unbalanced microbial populations in the gut can derail this process and can even lead to malabsorption of critical nutrients. 

Digestive problems. The best evidence for probiotics is for reducing diarrhea, especially following antibiotic use. A 2010 review from the Cochrane Collaboration concluded that probiotics shorten episodes of acute infectious diarrhea. And in 2011, a Health Canada monograph stated that products containing certain probiotics (such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG) help manage acute infectious diarrhea and antibiotic-associated diarrhea. A 2012 research review in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) found that probiotics reduced the risk of antibiotic-associated diarrhea by 42 percent—but many of the studies had flaws, so these findings should be interpreted with caution. A 2013 Cochrane review of 23 trials also concluded that probiotics may be effective for preventing antibiotic-related diarrhea. However, two large, well-designed studies, in the Lancet in 2013 and the Annals of Internal Medicine in 2014, found that probiotics were no better than a placebo in preventing diarrhea in older people taking antibiotics. A review of 19 studies, published in Gastroenterology in 2017, found that probiotics reduce the risk of Clostridium difficile-related diarrhea in hospital patients, especially when the supplements were started during the first two days of antibiotic treatment.
The bacteria in your gut—both visitors and residents—need to eat too. Enter prebiotics, nondigestible carbs that feed friendly bacteria and help them multiply. They may even be helpful on their own, at recalibrating microbiota that have been thrown out of whack by stress; a recent study found mice who ate prebiotics slept better after a stressful experience. Hutkins advises taking them daily in the form of food, not pills, because it's difficult to get the needed amount from a supplement. Prebiotics are found in wholegrain oatmeal, bananas, onions, garlic, and asparagus.
Matsumoto S., Hara T., Hori T., Mitsuyama K., Nagaoka M., Tomiyasu N., et al. (2005) Probiotic Lactobacillus-induced improvement in murine chronic inflammatory bowel disease is associated with the down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in lamina propria mononuclear cells Clin Exp Immunol 140: 417–426 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
Plus, thanks to its immune-modulating properties, it can also decrease inflammation and minimize symptoms of certain autoimmune disorders. For example, one study published in the journal BMC Complementary & Alternative Medicine showed that Bacillus coagulans was effective at reducing inflammation, relieving pain and improving the ability to perform regular daily activities in people with rheumatoid arthritis. (3)
An imbalance in the gut microbiota is believed to contribute to a number of health problems, particularly gastrointestinal issues, as well as immune dysfunction and infections. The bacterial balance can be disrupted by medical conditions, emotional and physical stress, and, most notably, use of antibiotics, which destroy the good bacteria along with the bad.
In 1907, Russian zoologist Élie Metchinkoff theorized that the gut microbiome could be modified by replacing the harmful bacteria in the digestive tract with beneficial strains instead. He also suggested that the aging process stemmed from the production of toxic substances by specific strains of bacteria in the gut. He believed that fermented foods like sour milk could help lower the pH of the intestinal tract and block the growth of bacteria.
Swanson Health's purity and potency testing begins with our ingredient sourcing, continues through manufacturing, and goes beyond when a product hits the shelf. Our testing exceeds industry standards, ensuring each product meets our quality guarantees for purity and potency. Swanson facilities are Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) certified, and we voluntarily participate in third-party, independent laboratory testing. With Swanson, you can be sure you're getting the most pure and potent health products at a great value. Click here to learn more about our quality standards.
The side effects of antibiotic use are often not trivial. Many people experience discomfort and a change in bowel habits, but some experience more severe infections, such as opportunistic colonization of the gut with bacteria such as Clostridium difficile (C.diff), which affected half a million Americans in 2015 and was directly responsible for at least 15,000 deaths.
Bottom Line: Eating foods rich in probiotics can boost the healthy bacteria in your digestive tract, which can help you fend off indigestion and improve immunity. For individuals who either don't like probiotic-rich foods or don't get enough probiotics from foods, taking daily probiotic supplements may be beneficial. However, an overall healthy diet is still the key to maintaining optimal gut health.

Reviews looking at the treatment or prevention of vulvovaginal candidiasis in women, pneumonia in patients hooked up to respirators, and colds in otherwise healthy people show some positive results. But the authors note that the studies are almost all of low quality, small in size, and often funded by companies with significant conflicts of interest.
The above line of probiotics is also a favorite of Engelman. "I like Nerium International's new Prolistic Pre & Probiotic Plus Vitamins ($45) because it combines prebiotics, probiotics, and vitamins," Engelman explains. "It supports overall health while targeting digestive function. It contains two types of prebiotics and two strains of probiotics to help enhance levels of beneficial microflora and balance levels of healthy bacteria in the digestive system. Additionally, it contains B vitamins, vitamin C, and vitamin D, which work to enhance the body's immune system and support natural energy production."
The label should also specify that the living microbes are viable through end of shelf life or best-by date rather than at time of manufacture to ensure the bacteria are still live when you take them and able to reach your colon. Quality trumps everything: Bargain supplements typically aren’t of good quality. Depending on strands, a good probiotic can cost anywhere from $25-$60.
How is it that probiotics are such a ubiquitous trend in the wellness scene but subject to tons of misinformation all the same? Consider the myth, for example, that the only appeal of replenishing your good bacteria is smoother digestion. On the contrary, the benefits of probiotics abound: from a boosted mood and better skin to a healthier immune system.
“I recommend this to my patients because Metagenics provides high-quality, professional-grade supplements that are scientifically formulated,” says Crystal Karges, MS, RDN, a maternal health dietitian in San Diego. “Supplementing with the specific probiotic strains in this product can help maintain healthy vaginal microflora and support urogenital health. Recent research has found that consuming probiotics during pregnancy may reduce the chances of premature birth and preeclampsia in late pregnancy.”
Dr. Tobias responded with Deep Immune Support, a shelf-stable capsule that does not require refrigeration and employs four acid-resistant probiotic strains. One such strain: DE111, a highly effective spore-forming probiotic, which complements and balances the non-spore strains most commonly found today, and also supports the proliferation of beneficial bacteria. The patented, delayed-release capsules are made in the USA and are both kosher and vegetarian.

Caution: As with any dietary or herbal supplement, you should advise your healthcare professional of the use of this product if you have any medical condition or are taking any medication. If you are nursing, pregnant, or considering pregnancy, consult your healthcare professional prior to using this product. Discontinue use and contact a healthcare professional if you experience an allergic reaction or side effect. Read label ingredients carefully before use and avoid use if known sensitivity to any of the ingredients. Do not exceed suggested use. Keep out of reach of children.
The Bifidobacteria (Bifidus) predominantly live in your colon or large intestine. They produce the very important short-chain fatty acid butyrate, which supplies energy to your colon cells to keep them functioning optimally. But butyrate also gets absorbed by the body, regulating a variety of metabolic processes, including your sensitivity to the hormone insulin (which regulates blood sugar) and even memory formation in the brain. The most beneficial of these are B. lactis and B. longum. Research shows the benefits for Bifidobacteria include reducing inflammatory bowel disease and several cancers, especially colon cancer. Another study showed that a specific strain of Bifidobacterium lactis helped control body fat mass and reduced waist circumference and food intake.

Prebiotics do contribute to a happy, symptom-free gut in the sense that they serve as fuel for the good microbes that help keep the digestive process humming. So while on their own they don’t do much, you absolutely need prebiotics for gut microbiome support and healthy digestion. Natural foods are by far the best source — supplements aren’t necessary if you’re eating a healthy, balanced, and veggie-rich diet.


Reviews looking at the treatment or prevention of vulvovaginal candidiasis in women, pneumonia in patients hooked up to respirators, and colds in otherwise healthy people show some positive results. But the authors note that the studies are almost all of low quality, small in size, and often funded by companies with significant conflicts of interest.
Dr. Michelle Schoffro Cook says there’s no single best strain of bacteria, though some strains, like L. Acidophilus or B. Bacterium, have wide-reaching effects. They often act as a starting point from which to add other strains with more specific impacts. Already have probiotics on hand or want to arm yourself with raw knowledge before you shop? The table below shows the research- and expert-backed strains we looked for in each use case:
^ Newlove-Delgado TV, Martin AE, Abbott RA, Bethel A, Thompson-Coon J, Whear R, et al. (2017). "Dietary interventions for recurrent abdominal pain in childhood". Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 3: CD010972. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010972.pub2. PMID 28334433. Overall, there is some evidence to suggest that probiotics may be effective in the treatment of RAP, in terms of improving pain in the shorter term. Clinicians may therefore consider probiotic interventions as part of themanagement strategy for children with RAP (Recurrent Abdominal Pain). However, we were unable to recommend the optimum strain and dosage of probiotic based on this review. The evidence for the effectiveness of probiotics was based largely on shorter-term outcomes. Further trials are required to assess whether improvements in pain are maintained over the longer term; these trials should also consider the importance of using validated and consistent scales to measure pain and other outcomes.
According to Bonnie Taub-Dix, MA, RD, CDN, founder of Better Than Dieting and author of Read It Before You Eat It, “We have more bacterial cells in our body than actual tissue, so you want as much “good” bacteria to be on your side. But not all probiotics are alike, and how your body reacts to them will not be the same as someone else who takes them.”

However, a 2003 pilot study and 2011 randomized, controlled trial both reported that RA activities remained unchanged, but the subjects treated with probiotics reported statistically significantly higher levels of “subjective well-being.” One suggested reason for this was that the trials were too short to establish changes in the observable changes in the internal earmarks of RA.


A growing probiotics market has led to the need for stricter requirements for scientific substantiation of putative benefits conferred by microorganisms claimed to be probiotic.[3] Although there are numerous claimed benefits marketed towards using consumer probiotic products, such as reducing gastrointestinal discomfort, improving immune health, relieving constipation, or avoiding the common cold, such claims are not supported by scientific evidence,[3][10][11] and are prohibited as deceptive advertising in the United States by the Federal Trade Commission.[12]
Undaunted, researchers looked into whether probiotics might be beneficial in a host of disorders, even when the connection to gut health and the microbiome was tenuous. Reviews show that there is insufficient evidence to recommend their use to treat or prevent eczema, preterm labor, gestational diabetes, bacterial vaginosis, allergic diseases or urinary tract infections.
Some of their benefits are universal, no matter your age or gender: supporting gut health, healthy skin, weight management, and strong teeth. But gender-specific probiotic benefits also exist. For instance, women who take probiotic supplements may be more likely to maintain vaginal and breast health, and expecting mothers who take probiotics can get support with some of the less pleasant side effects of pregnancy.
Bacteria die out over time. Some supplements list the potency when they were manufactured (before they rode in a truck, sat on the shelf at the grocery store, or hung out in the kitchen cupboard for a few months). In this case, there could be dramatically fewer viable bacteria by the time you consume them than when they were first encapsulated, and good bacteria are no good to you dead.
Immunity and colds/flu.There’s a close connection between the bacteria in your colon and the immune system. Several studies, including one in 2012 in the British Journal of Nutrition, have found that certain probiotic strains boost measures of immune response—but whether this translates into any clinical benefits is uncertain. Studies have been inconsistent, for example, as to whether probiotics will actually curb colds and other upper respiratory infections. In 2014 a review in the British Journal of Nutrition, which looked at 20 clinical trials, linked probiotics to shorter duration of colds, but not necessarily reduced incidence or severity. Similarly, a 2015 Cochrane review of 12 clinical trials concluded that certain probiotics may help prevent or shorten such infections, though the quality of the studies was poor.
But not all of the bacteria in your body are good for you. Some research suggests that having too many of the "bad" and not enough of the "good" bacteria — caused in part by an unhealthy diet — can wreak all sorts of havoc on your body's systems. This imbalance can lead to weight gain, skin conditions, constipation or diarrhea, and various chronic health conditions.

“Aside from the beneficial probiotics, this has plant-based compounds like ginger to soothe upset stomachs and support healthy digestive function,” says Beth Warren, MS, RDN, a dietitian in New York City. It also has prebiotics, which encourage the growth of healthy bacteria that support the well being of pregnant and breastfeeding women, she explains. “The formula has L. rhamnosus HN001, which has been shown to support the child’s developing immune system during the last trimester and early breastfeeding period.”
Probiotics have also been researched for how they support the immune system. Studies suggest that probiotics can improve how the immune system functions such as by decreasing upper respiratory tract infections in adults and reducing the need for antibiotics. Studies in children show that a regular diet including probiotics reduces colds and flu-like symptoms and improves attendance in preschool and day care settings.

The potential efficacy of probiotics to treat AAD depends on the probiotic strains and dosage.[83][84] One review recommended for children L. rhamnosus or Saccharomyces boulardii at 5 to 40 billion colony forming units/day, given the modest number needed to treat and the likelihood that adverse events are very rare.[13] The same review stated that probiotic use should be avoided in pediatric populations at risk for adverse events, such as severely debilitated or immune-compromised children.
Hardly a day goes by without some new announcement related to the beneficial effects of probiotics for women’s health. We have now gotten to a place where the notion of doing everything you can to maintain and reinforce healthy gut bacteria has become well defined as an important recommendation from healthcare providers across a wide spectrum of specialties. Who would’ve thought that maintaining healthy gut bacteria would be an important consideration in such seemingly diverse specialties as gastroenterology, gynecology and even psychiatry?
Probiotics stick around for a while, though for how long isn’t precisely clear. You have to keep taking them to continue to reap the benefits. Further, getting a wide variety of strains into your system is beneficial. “Periodically mixing up your probiotic supplement is also a good way to ensure that you get different health-building strains in your health regime,” says Dr. Cook.
^ Cuello-Garcia CA, Brożek JL, Fiocchi A, Pawankar R, Yepes-Nuñez JJ, Terracciano L, Gandhi S, Agarwal A, Zhang Y, Schünemann HJ (2015). "Probiotics for the prevention of allergy: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (Systematic review & meta-analysis). 136 (4): 952–61. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2015.04.031. PMID 26044853.
Immunity and colds/flu.There’s a close connection between the bacteria in your colon and the immune system. Several studies, including one in 2012 in the British Journal of Nutrition, have found that certain probiotic strains boost measures of immune response—but whether this translates into any clinical benefits is uncertain. Studies have been inconsistent, for example, as to whether probiotics will actually curb colds and other upper respiratory infections. In 2014 a review in the British Journal of Nutrition, which looked at 20 clinical trials, linked probiotics to shorter duration of colds, but not necessarily reduced incidence or severity. Similarly, a 2015 Cochrane review of 12 clinical trials concluded that certain probiotics may help prevent or shorten such infections, though the quality of the studies was poor.
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