The Bifidobacteria (Bifidus) predominantly live in your colon or large intestine. They produce the very important short-chain fatty acid butyrate, which supplies energy to your colon cells to keep them functioning optimally. But butyrate also gets absorbed by the body, regulating a variety of metabolic processes, including your sensitivity to the hormone insulin (which regulates blood sugar) and even memory formation in the brain. The most beneficial of these are B. lactis and B. longum. Research shows the benefits for Bifidobacteria include reducing inflammatory bowel disease and several cancers, especially colon cancer. Another study showed that a specific strain of Bifidobacterium lactis helped control body fat mass and reduced waist circumference and food intake.
However, it’s not just digestive woes that probiotics can help address. A clinical case series followed 300 patients who took a probiotic mixture of L. acidophilus and L. bulgaricus. They documented that 80% of acne patients had some degree of clinical improvement, particularly effective in inflammatory acne. Later, an Italian study involving 40 patients found L. acidophilus and B. bifidum supplementation produced better clinical outcomes in acne as well as better tolerance and compliance with antibiotics [2].
Given that you can get probiotics from the food you eat, you don't necessarily need to take a supplement, and Keatley says she prefers food sources of probiotics to supplements. However, she adds that "There are times when you really need a boost." One example might be during or after a course of antibiotics, as long as you have your doctor's OK, since antibiotics kill both good and bad bacteria: "Seeding your gut with good bacteria can lay the groundwork for a faster recovery and less constipation and diarrhea," Keatley points out. Angelone echoes Keatley's emphasis on food sources of probiotics, but also says that supplements can also play a useful role in "maintaining a healthy gut bacteria colony."

There’s hard science saying probiotics can help with certain kinds of diarrhea, but for other conditions, it’s a bit of a crapshoot (har har). Lebwohl says that one of the first things that needs to change for probiotics to go widespread legit in the medical community is their regulation. Since they’re currently marketed as dietary supplements, they’re not subjected to the same FDA standards that medications are. That means that not only have they not been proven to work, it also means there’s also no assurance that what’s on the labels of these products actually matches what’s inside the bottle.

Many wondered whether probiotics could be therapeutic in other gastrointestinal disorders. Unfortunately, that doesn’t appear to be the case. Probiotics didn’t show a significant benefit for chronic diarrhea. Three reviews looked at how probiotics might improve Crohn’s disease, and none could find sufficient evidence to recommend their use. Four more reviews looked at ulcerative colitis, and similarly declared that we don’t have the data to show that they work. The same was true for the treatment of liver disease.
Naturally fermented pickles, the type in which vinegar is not used in the pickling process, are rich sources of good bacteria. Sea salt and water are used in a fermentation process that results in the growth of good bacteria. Make sure vinegar was not used in the pickling process as pickles made in this way will not be rich in bacteria that boosts healthy gut flora. Beneficial bugs in fermented foods like pickles boost gut health and encourage a diverse microbiome. Eating foods that are rich in probiotic bacteria such as pickles retards the growth of harmful bacteria and it boosts the body's defenses against infection.
A popular dish in Japan consisting of fermented soybeans, natto contains the extremely powerful probiotic bacillus subtilis, which has been proven to bolster your immune system, support cardiovascular health and enhance digestion of vitamin K2. Natto can also contain vitamin B12, which is usually lacking in vegan diets. It’s also one of the highest plant-based proteins.
Safety Warning	In rare cases, some people may experience stomach upset due to Probiotics Cleansing Effect. This is positive sign as high potency probiotics removing waste or toxic substances from body. To avoid reaction, it's recommended to start with less dosage and slowly increase.	Do not exceed recommended dose. Pregnant or nursing mothers, children under the age of 18, and individuals with a known medical condition should consult a physician before using this or any dietary supplement. May adversely affect existing medical conditions, including but not limited to: IBS (Irritable Bowel Syndrome), Gastritis, G.E.R.D. Please note: Probiotics may temporarily cause bloating, gas or gassy, stomach pain, hurt stomach or cramps (cramped, cramping), vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, constipation, changes in digestion, allergic reactions, heartburn, jitters, rashes, skin irritation, breakouts, headache, fatigue, changes in appetite, joints hurt, spike blood glucose, bad pains, terrible symptoms, tiredness, passed out or sick feeling or sickness. These possible side effects are rare and will vary from one person to another in occurrence and severity. This product does not contain Milk, Eggs, Soy, Wheat, Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Seafood, Fish. The Lactobacillus strain contained is grown on a dairy medium, but the dairy is removed in processing. People with severe allergies to dairy and those that are lactose intolerant should consult a medical professional before taking this product, as adverse reactions can occur. If for any reason you experience any adverse effects, immediately discontinue use of the product and consult with your doctor. Do not use if seal is missing or broken. Keep Out Of Reach of Children and Pets.	KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN. DO NOT USE IF SAFETY SEAL IS DAMAGED OR MISSING. STORE IN A COOL, DRY PLACE. Do not exceed recommended dose. Pregnant or nursing mothers, children under the age of 18 and individual with a known medical condition should consult a physician before using this or any other dietary supplement. Do not take this supplement if you are allergic to any of the listed ingredients. May adversely affect existing medical conditions, including but not limited to: G.E.R.D., IBS, Stomach Ulcer(s), asthma. Please note: Probiotics 60 Billion CFU may temporarily cause heartburn, gas, upset stomach, stomach cramps, stomach pain (hurt stomach), irritated stomach, burning stomach, acid reflux, bloating, constipation, increased chest congestion/mucus, insomnia, inflammation, fatigue, make your brain not feel right, nose bleeds, agitation, headaches, nausea, diarrhea (liquid stools, burning bowel movements, runs), intestinal issues, dry mouth, rash, itching, hives, dizziness, swollen tongue, vomiting, heart palpitations, fast heartbeat, unexpected issues or sickness. These possible side effects are rare and will vary from one person to another in occurrence and severity. If for any reason you experience any adverse effects, immediately discontinue use of the product and consult with your doctor. Do not use if seal is missing or broken. Keep Out Of Reach of Children and Pets.	Supplements such as this may contain stimulants that may cause upset stomach for a small percentage of customers. If you feel an adverse reaction or feel ill, please contact our support staff immediately to notify us of the issue so that we can offer advice or assistance. Please consult with a physician prior to beginning this supplement. 

In the past, probiotics have been proposed as part of a weight loss diet. However, a 2015 meta-analysis looked at available randomized, controlled trials investigating this effect and determined that the studies did not seem to support this hypothesis, as body weight and BMI were not consistently reduced. The researchers did point out the need for better designed trials, because they were not convinced the results were based on well-designed science.
Probiotics act by stimulating the growth of microorganism colonies in our bodies that are “good” or helpful. These beneficial bacteria play an important role in maintaining the natural balance in our systems, stabilizing our digestive organs’ barriers against undesirable microorganisms, producing substances that inhibit “bad” microorganisms’ growth, outcompeting undesirable microorganisms, and stimulating immune responses.1

Secondly, probiotics must have undergone controlled evaluation to document health benefits in the target host. Only products that contain live organisms shown in reproducible human studies to confer a health benefit can actually claim to be probiotic.[3][115][116] The correct definition of health benefit, backed with solid scientific evidence, is a strong element for the proper identification and assessment of the effect of a probiotic. This aspect represents a major challenge for scientific and industrial investigations because several difficulties arise, such as variability in the site for probiotic use (oral, vaginal, intestinal) and mode of application.[61]

If you have an immune system problem or another serious health condition, you may have a greater chance of issues. Some reports have linked probiotics to serious infections and other side effects. The people most likely to have trouble are those with immune system problems, people who've had surgery, and others who are critically ill. Don't take probiotics if you have any of those issues.
BlueBiotics is a good product to start with and then evaluate from there. The cold is actually good for probiotics as freezing them extends the life of the cultures. Companies who freeze dry their probiotics (which if I’m not mistaken, each of these companies do), but having them shipped in very high temperatures can and does kill probiotic microorganisms so it’s definitely a concern. Ideally, it’s better to stock up during the winter so that you don’t have your product stuck in the back of a hot truck before it gets to you.
Even for healthy people, there are uncertainties about the safety of probiotics. Because many research studies on probiotics haven’t looked closely at safety, there isn’t enough information right now to answer some safety questions. Most of our knowledge about safety comes from studies of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium; less is known about other probiotics. Information on the long-term safety of probiotics is limited, and safety may differ from one type of probiotic to another. For example, even though a National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH)-funded study showed that a particular kind of Lactobacillus appears safe in healthy adults age 65 and older, this does not mean that all probiotics would necessarily be safe for people in this age group.
Preliminary research is evaluating the potential physiological effects of multiple probiotic strains, as opposed to a single strain.[110][111] As the human gut may contain several hundred microbial species, one theory indicates that this diverse environment may benefit from consuming multiple probiotic strains, an effect that remains scientifically unconfirmed.
Elevated levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-6R, IL-1Beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) [Dinan et al. 2006; Liebregts et al. 2007] and a lower IL-10/IL-12 ratio [O’Mahony et al. 2005] have been reported in IBS patients in comparison to controls, suggesting that IBS may be associated with increased pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. However, plasma cytokine levels may not necessarily reflect the expression or levels of cytokines in the mucosa of the bowel wall, but may come from activated immune cells in the spleen or liver [Nance and Sanders, 2007]. The imbalance between IL-10 and IL-12, observed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, was confirmed at the mucosal level in a recent study by Macsharry and colleagues suggesting that this finding may be an underlying phenotype in IBS and a potential biomarker for a subset of IBS patients [Macsharry et al. 2008]. B. infantis was shown to increase IL-10/IL-12 ratio in IBS patients [O’Mahony et al. 2005] suggesting a possible mechanism by which this probiotic may exert its effect.
"Want to feel happier, get off SSRIs? You have to mind your gut," I told Dawn before explaining the often-overlooked gut-brain connection. It isn’t just depression that gut health affects but headaches, migraines, allergies, autoimmunity, weight gain, acne, skin rashes, yeast infections, hormonal imbalances, fatigue, immune challenges, and even the way you sense pain can be linked to your gut health. So as a medical doctor who specializes in gut health, when I say things start in your gut—I really mean it!

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a multisymptom GI disorder with unclear etiology and pathogenesis. Changes in GI microflora in IBS patients have been reported by a number of investigators [Kassinen et al. 2007; Shanahan, 2007]. Recently, reports on variable prevalences of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in IBS have been published [Posserud et al. 2007; Lin, 2004]. IBS symptoms such as bloating or flatulence have been attributed to possible alterations in the intestinal microflora and probiotics have been used empirically to treat these difficult symptoms [Kim et al. 2003, 2005]. Postinfectious IBS may begin after a bout of acute gastroenteritis suggesting that altered microflora or induction of an altered inflammatory or immune state in the bowel may lead to altered bowel function and IBS symptoms [Collins et al. 2009]. An increase in lymphocytes and an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines have been described [Spiller et al. 2000].
Antibiotics are also a major contributor to gut imbalances. Many of us have been overprescribed antibiotics by well-meaning, conventional doctors from childhood onward. Antibiotic use as a solution for every infection is ingrained in our culture. Every time you take an antibiotic throughout your life, you disrupt your gut flora for up to 12 months.
Hardly a day goes by without some new announcement related to the beneficial effects of probiotics for women’s health. We have now gotten to a place where the notion of doing everything you can to maintain and reinforce healthy gut bacteria has become well defined as an important recommendation from healthcare providers across a wide spectrum of specialties. Who would’ve thought that maintaining healthy gut bacteria would be an important consideration in such seemingly diverse specialties as gastroenterology, gynecology and even psychiatry?
^ Jump up to: a b c d e Goldenberg, Joshua Z.; Lytvyn, Lyubov; Steurich, Justin; Parkin, Patricia; Mahant, Sanjay; Johnston, Bradley C. (2015-12-22). "Probiotics for the prevention of pediatric antibiotic-associated diarrhea". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (12): CD004827. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004827.pub4. ISSN 1469-493X. PMC 3374737. PMID 26695080.
^ Huys, G; Botteldoorn, N; Delvigne, F; Vuyst, L. D.; Heyndrickx, M; Pot, B; Dubois, J. J.; Daube, G (2013). "Microbial characterization of probiotics–Advisory report of the Working Group "8651 Probiotics" of the Belgian Superior Health Council (SHC)". Molecular Nutrition & Food Research. 57 (8): 1479–1504. doi:10.1002/mnfr.201300065. PMC 3910143. PMID 23801655.
Premature babies are at risk for this serious disease. Tissue in the intestines starts to die. The intestines get inflamed and a hole can form. Recent studies show that using Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG with the supplement bovine lactoferrin can help keep it under control. Bifidobacterium infantis combined with Lactobacillus acidophilus may also help stave off this problem in sick newborns.
Supplements play an important role when the diet is not adequate to supply our needs. In the case of probiotics, one's diet is the ideal source for probiotics. These are live bacteria and need to be carefully monitored, stored, and combined for the health benefits that one would be taking them for. At this time, supplements are not monitored in the U.S. the way that food or medication is. They fall under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA). This requires that the dietary supplement or dietary ingredient manufacturer be responsible for ensuring that a dietary supplement or ingredient is safe before it is marketed. The only time that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) may get involved is if action is needed to be taken against a manufacturer after the supplement is marketed and then found to be unsafe. This means that as much as we may know about probiotics, we can't be certain of the safety or content of the supplements available to us.
The trillions of bacteria in your gut play many roles including encouraging proper intestinal permeability (keeping things within your gut that shouldn’t slip out) and keeping out unfavorable bacteria, yeast, and parasites. You’ll always have some bad guys, but you want to keep your gut predominantly filled with good bacteria. To do that, eat plenty of fermented food like unpasteurized sauerkraut, kimchi, and no-sugar-added coconut yogurt. You might also want to supplement with a professional-quality probiotic. Look for dairy-free probiotics that contain at least 15 billion CFUs each of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium (a total of 30 billion CFUs) guaranteed by the manufacturer through the expiration date. Take on an empty stomach once or twice a day for at least three months, and keep probiotics refrigerated after opening to maintain their freshness and potency. If you have a leaky gut or inflammatory bowel disease (such as Crohn’s or ulcerative colitis), you may need to take up to a total of 200 billion CFUs daily. For those and other conditions that require very high-dose probiotics, I recommend working with a gut-health specialist.
From Lactobacillus acidophilus to Bacillus Coagulans, the BlueBiotics blend is a veritable list of the most researched and proven probiotic bacteria known to science. And recent advances on the blend have made it the only full-spectrum probiotic supplement on the market, as it contains strains which are typically not available to the general public (Bacillus Coagulans and S. boulardii). The CFU count alone is remarkable enough, leaving most comparable spectrums in the dust… HOWEVER even more surprisingly our tests showed that a whopping 98% of the probiotic colonies in BlueBiotics were still alive, making this BY FAR the most effective probiotic supplement that we have ever reviewed. Also, because of the diverse pool of strains in BlueBiotics, users have reported a wide variety of benefits from weight loss, to increased energy, improved digestive health and cognitive function. Many of our staff switched to these probiotics, as well as myself and my family.
Look, it makes sense that the gut would be ground zero for easing all kinds of ailments. In the past decade, scientists have discovered that the three pounds of microbes inside the digestive system—some 40 trillion bacteria, fungi, and viruses collectively known as the microbiota—aren't squatters mooching off a nutrient-rich environment. They're like a living organ unto themselves, working with the body to lap up nutrients from food, squeeze out germy invaders, and calibrate our immune systems. And since changes in the microbiota have been linked to gastrointestinal conditions like irritable bowel syndrome, adding "good" bacteria in the form of probiotics should boost your health.
Though most probiotics are formulated for both men and women, Garden of Life’s Raw Probiotics for Women is manufactured with women in mind. This probiotic has a whopping 85 billion live cultures and 32 different probiotic strains to target everything from gut and vaginal health to thyroid and nutrient absorption. It contains two popular probiotics, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium, and is gluten-free, soy-free, and made without fillers or binder—which is great for anyone with dietary restrictions or allergies. Each container comes with 90 capsules; the recommended dose is three capsules per day.
A probiotic dietary supplement can aid your health in a variety of ways. Lactobacillus species, Bifidobacteria, Saccharomyces boulardii and Bacillus coagulans are the most common beneficial bacteria used in probiotic dietary supplement products. But each type — and each strain of each type — can work in different ways. Bottom line: Not all probiotics are the same, nor do they all have the same effect in the body.

Research suggests probiotics work better as a team. Even pairs are more effective than individuals. Take the strains Lactobacillus Acidophilus and Bifidobacterium Bifidum BB-12, for example. When combined, this duo-force has been shown to help treat GI-specific ailments. In fact, one survey found 75 percent of studies that compared the effect of a strain mixture with a single-strain supplement showed a mixture was more effective at improving irritable bowel symptoms, immune function, and digestive health.
In an ideal world, women could probably get away with just “eating right.” But this would be a world in which food didn’t contain preservatives, artificial colors and flavors, or products derived from genetically modified plants. It would be a world free of toxins in the air we breathe and the water we drink. And, perhaps most importantly, it would be a world in which we were not exposed to various medications and other environmental threats that can wreak havoc on our gut bacteria and open the door for declining health.
There is also promising research on this species for supporting skin. Ceramides are natural lipids that make up the surface of the skin structure. Depleted ceramide levels are clinically linked with dry and damaged skin. S. thermophilus was shown to have a beneficial effect on the level of ceramides in the barrier of the skin, which protects underlying tissue from infection, dehydration and chemicals. These skin-supporting microbes also act as antioxidants in the body, trapping reactive forms of oxygen that dry, damage and age the skin [1].
Cynthia is the assistant editor and frequent contributor. She’s originally from California, but has lived in many countries including South Korea, China and Germany. She currently lives with her husband in Minnesota. Cynthia is passionate about helping families find the best advice for family life and safety. Cynthia also has experience in early childhood education and holds a TEFL-C certificate from Teachers College, Columbia University. She has been writing about family-focused topics, advice and trends since 2014.

"Many chronic health problems and inflammatory diseases are caused by a damaged microbiome where the good bacteria is overrun by the harmful bacteria and can't reinforce the gut walls, which results in increased intestinal permeability where bacteria and toxins leak through the intestines into the bloodstream triggering a system-wide immune response of inflammation that is a part of our body's natural healing cycle."
BlueBiotics is a good product to start with and then evaluate from there. The cold is actually good for probiotics as freezing them extends the life of the cultures. Companies who freeze dry their probiotics (which if I’m not mistaken, each of these companies do), but having them shipped in very high temperatures can and does kill probiotic microorganisms so it’s definitely a concern. Ideally, it’s better to stock up during the winter so that you don’t have your product stuck in the back of a hot truck before it gets to you.
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Prebiotics are considered by some to be non-digestible carbohydrates, that are not digested by the body but nourish the micro-organisms in the colon. They occur naturally in the diet and are found in foods such as garlic, bananas, oats, onions and leeks. This idea has been criticised by some due to its poor definition and some scientists prefer to use the term 'microbiota accessible carbohydrates', as they are fermentable dietary fibre that the microbes can use. However, foods containing prebiotics are also the components of a healthy diet and should therefore be consumed regularly.

Probiotics are contained in a variety of different products, including foods, dietary supplements, infant formula, medical foods, pharmaceuticals and even devices (such as tampons that deliver probiotics). Evidence for the benefits of probiotics is emerging, but strong evidence for probiotic benefit has been seen with reducing antibiotic associated diarrhea, improving mild to moderate IBS and other digestive symptoms, reduce crying time in colicky but otherwise healthy infants, reducing the incidence and duration of common upper respiratory tract infections and helping manage vaginal infections. Probiotics are also used in some hospitals to help prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants.
We also found strains linked to five other health benefits like weight loss and lowering cholesterol. We feature options for those cases below, but they aren’t top picks because those use cases aren’t as heavily researched as immune health or IBS relief. Still, chances are any probiotic supplement is going to make some improvement to your digestive health, so don’t be afraid to experiment.
There is one Voluntary Certification Program by which a supplement manufacturer can choose to be evaluated. ConsumerLab.com (CL) is the leading provider of independent test results and information to help consumers and health-care professionals identify the best quality health and nutrition products. Products that have passed their testing for identity, strength, purity, and disintegration can print the CL Seal of Approval on their product. This is one step toward being confident that one is getting the amount and type of probiotic promised by the manufacturer.

When it comes to probiotics, it appears that 10 billion live "friendly" bacteria is the magic dose, Dr. Novey says. That number may sound like a lot, but that’s about how many are in an eight-ounce carton of yogurt. (Check the expiration date, Novey notes: The further away the date, the more live bacteria the yogurt is likely to contain.) The probiotic supplements you buy in the health food store probably contain about 10 billion live bacteria per capsule as well. However, according to Novey it’s better to get your daily intake of probiotics from yogurt and other fermented foods than from pills or capsules. For example, yogurt also provides calcium, a much-needed nutrient. “Capsules are better when you need to recover your colon from having taken antibiotics,” he says.
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