The health benefits of cabbage The humble cabbage may not seem like a superfood in the classic sense. But this everyday vegetable is packed with vitamins C and K and folate, and boasts few calories and heaps of fiber. Cabbage also has surprising benefits, including protecting against radiation and cancer and aiding our digestion and immune systems. Read now
A growing probiotics market has led to the need for stricter requirements for scientific substantiation of putative benefits conferred by microorganisms claimed to be probiotic.[3] Although there are numerous claimed benefits marketed towards using consumer probiotic products, such as reducing gastrointestinal discomfort, improving immune health, relieving constipation, or avoiding the common cold, such claims are not supported by scientific evidence,[3][10][11] and are prohibited as deceptive advertising in the United States by the Federal Trade Commission.[12]
Quality matters for any supplement, and that goes triple for probiotics. Many commercial brands lack the technology to identify specific strains and how much of that strain each dose contains. That could mean you get an ineffective or potentially harmful dose. It's a great sign if the company is using strains that have been used specifically in clinical trials at a dose similar to or the same as that used in the study. This is one of the only ways to guarantee a probiotic's clinical effectiveness.
The original modern hypothesis of the positive role played by certain bacteria was first introduced by Russian scientist and Nobel laureate Élie Metchnikoff, who in 1907 suggested that it would be possible to modify the gut microbiota and to replace harmful microbes with useful microbes.[9] Metchnikoff, at that time a professor at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, proposed the hypothesis that the aging process results from the activity of putrefactive (proteolytic) microbes producing toxic substances in the large bowel. Proteolytic bacteria such as clostridia, which are part of the normal gut microbiota, produce toxic substances including phenols, indols, and ammonia from the digestion of proteins. According to Metchnikoff, these compounds were responsible for what he called intestinal autointoxication, which would cause the physical changes associated with old age.[54]
Questions and concerns have been raised, however, about the safety of probiotic administration in the setting of a severe illness. Probiotic sepsis is the most feared complication related to probiotic administration [Boyle et al. 2006]. Lactobacillus is a rare but documented cause of endocarditis in adults [Cannon et al. 2005]. There are several reports in the literature of bacteremia in adults and children in the setting of probiotic administration [De Groote et al. 2005; Land et al. 2005; Kunz et al. 2004, 2005; Mackay et al. 1999; Rautio et al. 1999]. In addition, several cases of Saccharomyces boulardii fungemia have been reported in the literature [Cherifi et al. 2004; Henry et al. 2004; Cassone et al. 2003; Lestin et al. 2003; Riquelme et al. 2003; Lherm et al. 2002; Cesaro et al. 2000; Hennequin et al. 2000; Perapoch et al. 2000; Rijnders et al. 2000; Niault et al. 1999; Bassetti et al. 1998; Fredenucci et al. 1998; Pletincx et al. 1995], including two series in which the fungi spread to neighboring patients who were not taking the probiotic [Cassone et al. 2003; Perapoch et al. 2000]. This spread was thought to be due to contamination of central catheters in patients who had intestinal surgery (jejunostomy) or chronic illnesses (valvular heart disease), and who were immunocompromised. Only one case of probiotic sepsis was thought to have been directly fatal [Lestin et al. 2003]. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed using probiotic prophylaxis (six different strains of viable bacteria: L. acidophilus, L. casei, L. salivarius, L. lactis, B. bifidum, and B. lactis) in a total daily dose of 1010 bacteria orally twice daily for 28 days in patients hospitalized with severe acute pancreatitis. This showed no decrease in infectious complications but increased mortality (16%) in the probiotics group in comparison with the placebo group (6%, relative risk [RR] 2.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22–5.25). Nine of the 152 patients in the probiotics group developed bowel ischemia, eight of whom died, compared with none in the placebo group [Besselink et al. 2008].
What's nice about supplement company Care/of is that it allows you to design personalized daily vitamin and supplement packs containing everything you need, including probiotics. Its vegan, gluten-free probiotic formula has one billion lactobacillus acidophilus and four billion bifidobacterium lactis per dose, popular strains thought to help promote digestive and immune health.
If your child has a history of stomach problems that medicine doesn’t seem to help, adding a probiotic to his or her diet can help. We love the OLLY Kids Happy Tummy Gummy Supplements because they offer complete probiotic support in a kid-friendly gummy form. Each gummy has a blend of prebiotic, probiotic, and peppermint to help soothe upset stomachs. They contain 500 million CFU of Bacillus coagulans. This container comes with 30 gummies (to be taken once a day) and is recommended for children 2 years and older.
Every day, we’re exposed to toxins and inflammation-causing molecules from food and the environment that negatively impact digestion through pathways, such as leaky gut, known in the medical field as intestinal hyperpermeability. In leaky gut, the tight junctions that are supposed to keep disease-contributing compounds from leaving the digestive system are disrupted, allowing a lot of things through into the bloodstream that don’t belong there.
Mindy Weisberger is a senior writer for Live Science covering general science topics, especially those relating to brains, bodies, and behaviors in humans and other animals — living and extinct. Mindy studied filmmaking at Columbia University; her videos about dinosaurs, biodiversity, human origins, evolution, and astrophysics appear in the American Museum of Natural History, on YouTube, and in museums and science centers worldwide. Follow Mindy on Twitter.
The popular frenzy surrounding probiotics is fueled in large part by surging scientific and public interest in the human microbiome: the overlapping ecosystems of bacteria and other microorganisms found throughout the body. The human gastrointestinal system contains about 39 trillion bacteria, according to the latest estimate, most of which reside in the large intestine. In the past 15 years researchers have established that many of these commensal microbes are essential for health. Collectively, they crowd out harmful microbial invaders, break down fibrous foods into more digestible components and produce vitamins such as K and B12.
If you want to take advantage of the benefits of probiotics and you also want to make sure the beneficial bacteria you already have is optimized to its full potential, supplement your probiotic regimen with Prebiotin. A trained microbiologist cannot tell you which probiotics are the best ones to choose, so why try to do something you are not trained to do? Eat lots of foods with prebiotics in them and take a prebiotic supplement like Prebiotin. It’s the best thing you can do to maximize the benefits of both prebiotics and probiotics on the bacteria in your gut, and your overall good gut health.
We also found strains linked to five other health benefits like weight loss and lowering cholesterol. We feature options for those cases below, but they aren’t top picks because those use cases aren’t as heavily researched as immune health or IBS relief. Still, chances are any probiotic supplement is going to make some improvement to your digestive health, so don’t be afraid to experiment.
In these cases, IBS is essentially just TMI. “For the colon to be functioning properly, it needs to be contracting and relaxing in a way that is conducive to regular bowel movements that occur at predictable times and don’t occur too frequently or too rarely," Lebwohl says. "And the bowel needs to be giving infrequent feedback to the brain. People should not be getting updates from their bowel in terms of cramps or the feeling of having to have a bowel movement too often. Yet, people with IBS get very frequent unsolicited ‘progress reports’ from the bowel.”
Probiotics may seem new to the food and supplement industry, but they have been with us from our first breath. During a delivery through the birth canal, a newborn picks up the bacteria Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Escherichia coli from his/her mother. These good bacteria are not transmitted when a Cesarean section is performed and have been shown to be the reason why some infants born by C-section have allergies, less than optimal immune systems, and lower levels of gut microflora. 

But put down your kombucha, friends, because science has not quite proven that's the case yet, says Robert Hutkins, Ph.D., a scientist at the Nebraska Food for Health Center in Lincoln. Of the hundreds of identified probiotic strains, studies have only ID'd a handful that are helpful in treating specific conditions. And there's no evidence they have much effect on the microbiota of healthy individuals, per recent studies.
^ Jump up to: a b c "Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Bifidobacterium longum LA 101, Lactobacillus helveticus LA 102, Lactococcus lactis LA 103 and Streptococcus thermophillus LA 104 and reducing intestinal discomfort pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 (example, search EFSA for other opinion reports on probiotics". EFSA Journal. 11 (2): 3085. 2013. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2013.3085.
There are foods with health halos. And then there are probiotics, which have practically been canonized. The word itself means—no big whoop—"to give life." Probiotics are now a nearly $37 billion industry in the U.S. Sales of probiotic-rich yogurt and kefir surged nearly 30 percent in the past three years. And just slapping "contains probiotics" on a product helps it sell better, says San Diego attorney Tim Blood, who specializes in consumer protection in advertising. Not too shabby for bacteria, right?

Sherman P.M., Johnson-Henry K.C., Yeung H.P., Ngo P.S., Goulet J., Tompkins T.A. (2005) Probiotics reduce enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7- and enteropathogenic E. coli O127:H6-induced changes in polarized T84 epithelial cell monolayers by reducing bacterial adhesion and cytoskeletal rearrangements Infect Immun 73: 5183–5188 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
Sure, why the hell not? Lebwohl says: "Essentially a yeast infection is an overgrowth of a kind of fungus. In theory, a probiotic could potentially have an effect of the microbiome of the vagina, though proof of its effectiveness hasn’t really been established.” No harm in giving it a try as long as you don't succumb to the temptation to put yogurt in your vagina.
Unless you know that your body is lacking in a particular type of probiotic, you should just look for broad-spectrum probiotics that contain a mix of different strains of bacteria, Warren says: "We have billions of bacteria in our gut, so by taking a supplement with a range of different strains, you will ensure you are not overdoing or missing one type." Keatley also stresses the importance of finding a supplement with a diversity of bacteria strains to keep overgrowth of any one strain in check. "Providing too much of an advantage to one strain of probiotic may push out another strain we didn't know was important until it's too late," she points out.

"Although all of our probiotic-consuming volunteers showed probiotics in their stool, only some of them showed them in their gut, which is where they need to be," co-senior author Eran Segal, a computational biologist at the Weizmann Institute, said in the statement. "If some people resist and only some people permit them, the benefits of the standard probiotics we all take can't be as universal as we once thought."
These are live microorganisms that will not provide the promised benefits if they don't remain alive. The manufacturer and consumer must pay close attention to the conditions of storage at which the particular microorganism will survive and the end of their shelf life. The potency will indicate the number of viable bacteria per dose, and the purity has to do with presence of contaminating or ineffective bacteria.
If you’re looking for a great probiotic you can take every day to target everything from gut to skin health, the Culturelle Daily Probiotic is our top choice. Each capsule has 10 billion active cultures of 100 percent Lactobacillus GG, a probiotic that helps curb gas, bloating, and upset stomach, and works to boost your immune system. Each capsule has the probiotic equivalent of 10 cups of yogurt and is dairy-free, sugar-free, and gluten-free. This container comes with 30 pills to be taken just once a day (most recommend taking it at night, especially when you’re just starting on probiotics).
The U.S. Clinical Guide to Probiotic Products1, Canadian Guide to Probiotic Supplements2 and the WGO Global Guidelines for Probiotics and Prebiotics3 provide suggested effective amounts of specific strains for treating certain health conditions, such as constipation or IBS. All 37 products listed the species of bacteria they contained, but only 14 listed amounts of individual strains. We found that 9 of those 14 products provided beneficial bacteria at effective levels. The Center for Responsible Nutrition recommends4 the industry move toward specifying strains as a best-practice because whether a product works and for what purpose depends on its strains.
Dr. Tobias responded with Deep Immune Support, a shelf-stable capsule that does not require refrigeration and employs four acid-resistant probiotic strains. One such strain: DE111, a highly effective spore-forming probiotic, which complements and balances the non-spore strains most commonly found today, and also supports the proliferation of beneficial bacteria. The patented, delayed-release capsules are made in the USA and are both kosher and vegetarian.
The discovery of the benefits of probiotics began with sour milk. Today we have many other options to get various bacteria from our foods, although it's not as simple as just adding them to the food. For there to be health benefits, the microorganism has to be able to survive the passage through the gastrointestinal tract, survive the food manufacturing process, and grow and survive during the ripening or storage period. Also, the bacteria must not negatively affect product quality and be included on the Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) list.
Within the past few years, the probiotics market has been EXPLODING. Doctors may have been prescribing them for a long time, but only recently have people started including these extraordinary supplements in their daily diets. Those who have started regularly taking probiotics have reported many improvements in their overall health. Here are some examples of the benefits thousands of daily users report:
I did the “milk test” on these New Rythm probiotics, along with Culturelle I had purchased in 2 different states (TX & MA, as I was traveling); my mother’s CVS brand acidophilus; and one “control” cup with milk only (so, 5 cups total in my experiment). The New Rythm became a solid yogurt consistency, while the other 4 remained liquids. I did the experiment twice, just to be sure of the results. I could not believe it!!! New Rhythm is my brand, hands down!!! I also would like to mention that my product usually arrives the day after it ships. So it will take a few days to ship when I select standard shipping, which is to be expected, but it doesn’t stay in transit long which is ideal for preserving the living cultures.
There’s hard science saying probiotics can help with certain kinds of diarrhea, but for other conditions, it’s a bit of a crapshoot (har har). Lebwohl says that one of the first things that needs to change for probiotics to go widespread legit in the medical community is their regulation. Since they’re currently marketed as dietary supplements, they’re not subjected to the same FDA standards that medications are. That means that not only have they not been proven to work, it also means there’s also no assurance that what’s on the labels of these products actually matches what’s inside the bottle.
Prebiotics are considered by some to be non-digestible carbohydrates, that are not digested by the body but nourish the micro-organisms in the colon. They occur naturally in the diet and are found in foods such as garlic, bananas, oats, onions and leeks. This idea has been criticised by some due to its poor definition and some scientists prefer to use the term 'microbiota accessible carbohydrates', as they are fermentable dietary fibre that the microbes can use. However, foods containing prebiotics are also the components of a healthy diet and should therefore be consumed regularly. 

To factor strain-specific benefits into our efficacy score, we referenced the information in these guides. Products were rewarded for containing strains on these lists. Additionally, measured levels of each strain were compared to what is thought to be effective based on these guides, and scores were scaled accordingly. In cases where products did not list strain-specific amounts, or their listed strains were not included in these guides, total measured CFUs were compared to a general effectiveness threshold of 1 billion CFUs cited by research published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition11.
Prebiotics are non-digestible food components that promote the growth of healthful bacteria in your gut. In essence, they are "good" bacteria promoters. In addition to improving digestive health, prebiotics can also enhance calcium absorption. Prebiotics are components of nondigestible fibers and are found in many plant foods. Rich sources of prebiotics include garlic, onion, leeks, asparagus, dandelion greens, and sunchokes. Prebiotics and probiotics work synergistically to optimize gut health. Hench, meals or products that combine these together have a symbiotic effect.

This content is strictly the opinion of Dr. Josh Axe and is for informational and educational purposes only. It is not intended to provide medical advice or to take the place of medical advice or treatment from a personal physician. All readers/viewers of this content are advised to consult their doctors or qualified health professionals regarding specific health questions. Neither Dr. Axe nor the publisher of this content takes responsibility for possible health consequences of any person or persons reading or following the information in this educational content. All viewers of this content, especially those taking prescription or over-the-counter medications, should consult their physicians before beginning any nutrition, supplement or lifestyle program.

If you struggle with post-meal gas, bloating, and other problems, your body might not be making sufficient digestive enzymes. Gut imbalances, stress, and age are among the factors that inhibit the digestive process. For many patients, supplements that replenish digestive enzymes can reduce or eliminate those problems, especially while you’re healing your gut. 

"The name itself is derived from the Latin 'pro-' meaning 'for' and the Greek '-biotic' meaning 'life,'" explains Jeannel Astarita, skincare expert and founder of Just Ageless NYC Wellness and Medspa. "Probiotics are the helpful bacteria that live primarily in your gut and play a crucial role in your overall health by fighting pathogens and yeast that lead to a weakened immune system."
Antibiotics are also a major contributor to gut imbalances. Many of us have been overprescribed antibiotics by well-meaning, conventional doctors from childhood onward. Antibiotic use as a solution for every infection is ingrained in our culture. Every time you take an antibiotic throughout your life, you disrupt your gut flora for up to 12 months.
B. bifidum has also been shown to prevent intestinal pathogens or digestive disrupters from flourishing in the gut, essential in restoring the bacterial balance and optimizing digestion. Clinical research found it supports a significant reduction in IBS symptoms, an improvement in quality of life and even helps relieve occurrences of ulcerative colitis, a chronic inflammatory bowel disease. [1].
Even for healthy people, there are uncertainties about the safety of probiotics. Because many research studies on probiotics haven’t looked closely at safety, there isn’t enough information right now to answer some safety questions. Most of our knowledge about safety comes from studies of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium; less is known about other probiotics. Information on the long-term safety of probiotics is limited, and safety may differ from one type of probiotic to another. For example, even though a National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH)-funded study showed that a particular kind of Lactobacillus appears safe in healthy adults age 65 and older, this does not mean that all probiotics would necessarily be safe for people in this age group.
Your gut is diverse, so your probiotic should be too. Look for a supplement that contains multiple strains, sometimes listed as a proprietary blend. Inferior brands might only contain one probiotic strain such as Lactobacillus acidophilus. Aside from Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains, probiotics may contain Strep. thermophilus and Saccharomyces boulardii, among others.
Antibiotics are a common treatment for children, with 11% to 40% of antibiotic-treated children developing diarrhea.[13] Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) results from an imbalance in the colonic microbiota caused by antibiotic therapy.[13] These microbial community alterations result in changes in carbohydrate metabolism, with decreased short-chain fatty acid absorption and osmotic diarrhea as a result. A 2015 Cochrane review concluded that a protective effect of some probiotics existed for AAD in children.[13] In adults, some probiotics showed a beneficial role in reducing the occurrence of AAD and treating Clostridium difficile disease.[14]
The authors discuss the need for “pscyhobiotics” (probiotics that impact brain function) in handling the development of these conditions. This anti-inflammatory quality is what seems to interest researchers most. While no studies have been conducted in humans, early research suggests that, in animals, probiotic supplements may help alleviate symptoms of anxiety by reducing inflammation along this gut-brain connection.
If you want to take advantage of the benefits of probiotics and you also want to make sure the beneficial bacteria you already have is optimized to its full potential, supplement your probiotic regimen with Prebiotin. A trained microbiologist cannot tell you which probiotics are the best ones to choose, so why try to do something you are not trained to do? Eat lots of foods with prebiotics in them and take a prebiotic supplement like Prebiotin. It’s the best thing you can do to maximize the benefits of both prebiotics and probiotics on the bacteria in your gut, and your overall good gut health.
And when you get leaky gut, food and other particles slip through the gut lining into your bloodstream. Your immune system does not recognize these, so it attacks, leading to food sensitivities and more inflammation. You might not even be aware of these sensitivities that take months or years to develop and can manifest as hives, allergies, chronic sinus inflammation, and migraines. They often become triggers for autoimmune disease or, for patients like Dawn, depression. This is why maintaining good gut health becomes crucial, and why havoc occurs throughout your body when your gut goes bad.
Oral health. An increasing number of probiotic lozenges and gums are promoted for oral health—to reduce periodontal disease, throat infections, and bad breath, for example. There’s preliminary evidence that certain strains may have some benefits, but commercial products may not have the same strains and formulations as those tested in published studies.
Probiotics, like all strategies for helping promote your health, might not work for everyone. People have different diets, the microbes colonizing their gut are specific to each of us and everyone’s physiology is unique. Research often shows that some people respond to a specific probiotic strain and others do not. So if you feel a probiotic is something you’d like to use, one strategy is to try a product for about a month. If you don’t see a benefit, then perhaps it’s not the right one for you.
In the gastrointestinal tract, L. plantarum can help regulate immunity and control inflammation. A 2007 study found that the probiotic could suppress an inflammatory response in the gut. Perhaps most significantly, a double-blind placebo-controlled study over four weeks concluded that L. Plantarum 299v provided effective symptom relief, especially of abdominal pain and bloating, in patients with IBS [1].
For most of my life, I thought of probiotics as something I’d only drink if I lost a bet. Then stress-induced irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) turned my intestinal tract into a nonstop river of shit—we’re talking weeks of everything I ate shooting straight out my butt in liquid form. The internet said probiotics were my best non-pharmaceutical bet to help my digestive system calm down, so I swallowed my pride (and my first kombucha ever) and kinda sorta saw the light. My IBS wasn’t cured, but probiotics did help me spend less time on the toilet wide-eyed with terror, and more time doing what’s really important in life—watching TV with my family.
While more research is necessary to fully understand the benefits of different probiotic strains, we do know that not all probiotics are created equal. The Lactobacilli, for instance, live in our digestive, urinary, and genital systems and can be found in some fermented foods like yogurt. Bifidobacteria normally live in the intestines as lactic acid bacteria, and are also found in fermented foods. According to nutrition expert Alex Caspero, RD, “For certain conditions, you want to ensure you’re taking the strand that is most likely to benefit you.” Here’s a simple breakdown to help you determine the best probiotic for you.
Probiotics have been shown to improve symptoms in IBS, traveller’s diarrhoea and the duration of antibiotic associated diarrhoea. There is emerging evidence that probiotics may improve cholesterol levels in people with type II diabetes, and could play a role in benefitting cold or flu outcomes during stressful periods. However, these are very small studies and more research is needed before robust recommendations can be made. 
Your digestive system (often referred to as “your gut”) is an extremely complex environment that performs many vital functions. The small intestine acts as the main site of enzymatic digestion of foods and absorption of nutrients. The large intestine or colon absorbs large quantities of water and electrolytes and helps to remove waste matter and other substances your body does not use. The large intestine is also responsible for the regulation of intestinal well-being, particularly through its complex microflora that contributes to the maintenance of intestinal function. 

In the first study, 25 human volunteers underwent upper endoscopies and colonoscopies to sample their baseline microbiome in regions of the gut. 15 of those volunteers were then divided into two groups. The first group consumed generic probiotic strains, while the second was administered a placebo. Both groups then underwent a second round of upper endoscopies and colonoscopies to assess their internal response before being followed for another 2 months.

Probiotics help tip the balance back in favor of the good bacteria. In doing so, they may provide some relief if you have irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), ulcerative colitis, acute infectious diarrhea, and diarrhea associated with antibiotic use or Clostridium difficile (C.diff) infection. They also can boost your immunity, fight inflammation and potentially have beneficial effects on cholesterol.
“I recommend this to my patients because Metagenics provides high-quality, professional-grade supplements that are scientifically formulated,” says Crystal Karges, MS, RDN, a maternal health dietitian in San Diego. “Supplementing with the specific probiotic strains in this product can help maintain healthy vaginal microflora and support urogenital health. Recent research has found that consuming probiotics during pregnancy may reduce the chances of premature birth and preeclampsia in late pregnancy.”
Probiotics are being used with increasing frequency as a treatment for several medical conditions, such as allergic diseases (atopic dermatitis, possibly allergic rhinitis), bacterial vaginosis, urinary tract infections, and prevention of dental caries or respiratory infections. Probiotics are used as a treatment for a variety of gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. In this review, the historical perspectives, proposed mechanisms of action, formulations and delivery systems, safety, and specific GI disorders for which probiotics have been used are discussed.

Even if a product's label shows it has the jackpot billion CFUs, they may not all be present when you swallow the pill. That's because probiotics are living organisms; they can die when it's too hot (if the label says to refrigerate, do it), and if they swelter too long in transit or on a shelf, the bacteria may be DOA. Meaning, if you're out running errands, pick up your probiotic supplements last, as they may lose some of their potency if left in a hot car. The good bugs also decay over time, so when you're shopping, choose the container with the furthest-out expiration date.
Hi Joan, it’s possible, but not ideal because most pill form probiotic supplements are designed to be protected from stomach acid until the capsule reaches the intestines. It’s impossible to say how many probiotic microorganisms would survive by taking them this way, but certainly less than if you swallow the pills. I would recommend trying a probiotic gummy product or some other probiotic that comes in something other than pill form rather than opening up the capsules.
Taking relatively high doses of these probiotic strains before, during, and after antibiotic treatment can help your microbiome get back on its feet: B. Lactis, B. Infantis, L. Acidophilus, L. Casei, L. Bulgaricus, L. Paracasei, L. Rhamnosus GG, and S. Boulardii. Our antibiotic combatant MegaFood MegaFlora has six of these strains, as well as eight others. One serving contains 20 billion CFUs to replenish the good bacteria.
Preliminary research is evaluating the potential physiological effects of multiple probiotic strains, as opposed to a single strain.[110][111] As the human gut may contain several hundred microbial species, one theory indicates that this diverse environment may benefit from consuming multiple probiotic strains, an effect that remains scientifically unconfirmed.

Our gut is home to over 500 bacterial species. These “visitors” form a bioreactor, which facilitates digestion, provides nutrients, and helps form the immune system. Some important nutrients made by this bioreactor include several B vitamins, vitamin K, folate, and some short-chain fatty acids. Up to 10% of an individual’s daily energy needs can be derived from the byproducts of the good bacteria in your gut.
Unless you know that your body is lacking in a particular type of probiotic, you should just look for broad-spectrum probiotics that contain a mix of different strains of bacteria, Warren says: "We have billions of bacteria in our gut, so by taking a supplement with a range of different strains, you will ensure you are not overdoing or missing one type." Keatley also stresses the importance of finding a supplement with a diversity of bacteria strains to keep overgrowth of any one strain in check. "Providing too much of an advantage to one strain of probiotic may push out another strain we didn't know was important until it's too late," she points out.
The bacteria in your gut—both visitors and residents—need to eat too. Enter prebiotics, nondigestible carbs that feed friendly bacteria and help them multiply. They may even be helpful on their own, at recalibrating microbiota that have been thrown out of whack by stress; a recent study found mice who ate prebiotics slept better after a stressful experience. Hutkins advises taking them daily in the form of food, not pills, because it's difficult to get the needed amount from a supplement. Prebiotics are found in wholegrain oatmeal, bananas, onions, garlic, and asparagus.
Proponents claim that probiotics (meaning “for life,” as opposed to antibiotics) confer health benefits primarily by rebalancing the normal microflora in the large intestine (colon). There are many general types of bacteria used as probiotics (two common ones are Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium), and many different species as well as strains within species. They have different physiological effects—and thus possibly different health benefits (as well as possible risks). Some yeasts, such as Saccharmyces, can also act as probiotics.
Probiotics have received renewed attention in the 21st century from product manufacturers, research studies, and consumers. The history of probiotics can be traced to the first use of cheese and fermented products, that were well known to the Greeks and Romans who recommended their consumption.[52] The fermentation of dairy foods represents one of the oldest techniques for food preservation.[53]
While Lebwohl isn't comfortable endorsing a specific brand publicly, he did say "a widely used brand in which the compound is bifidobacteria or lactobaccilus seems like a reasonable way to go in a patient who is eager to give this a try, but would be best done under the supervision of a healthcare professional.” He does advise looking for a supplement with between 1 billion and 10 billion colony-forming units, or CFUs.
In a separate study involving 21 healthy volunteers, also published today in Cell, the same group of researchers found that taking probiotics after treatment with broad spectrum antibiotics may actually delay the return of people's normal gut microbiome. This goes against the idea that probiotics can help "repopulate" people's gut bacteria after antibiotics wipe them out.
This specific strain of bacteria consistently ranks as a contender for the best probiotic for constipation and healthy digestion. And according to one study out of Iran, it may also be the best probiotic for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In fact, researchers showed that treating patients with IBS using Bacillus coagulans helped significantly improve diarrhea and reduce abdominal pain compared to a placebo. (2)
The best case for probiotic therapy has been in the treatment of diarrhea. Controlled trials have shown that Lactobacillus GG can shorten the course of infectious diarrhea in infants and children (but not adults). Although studies are limited and data are inconsistent, two large reviews, taken together, suggest that probiotics reduce antibiotic-associated diarrhea by 60%, when compared with a placebo.
If you have annoying tummy troubles... Allow your predominant symptoms to guide you. Bloated and constipated? Look for lactobacillus acidophilus or lactobacillus casei, which help restore gut flora. Can't stop going number two? Types with saccharomyces boulardii can ease antibiotic-associated diarrhea and even prevent extreme cases caused by infections.

The label should also specify that the living microbes are viable through end of shelf life or best-by date rather than at time of manufacture to ensure the bacteria are still live when you take them and able to reach your colon. Quality trumps everything: Bargain supplements typically aren’t of good quality. Depending on strands, a good probiotic can cost anywhere from $25-$60.

In the first study, 25 human volunteers underwent upper endoscopies and colonoscopies to sample their baseline microbiome in regions of the gut. 15 of those volunteers were then divided into two groups. The first group consumed generic probiotic strains, while the second was administered a placebo. Both groups then underwent a second round of upper endoscopies and colonoscopies to assess their internal response before being followed for another 2 months.
Sick of fighting off cold after cold? The Align Daily Immune Support Probiotic Supplement is a great way to give your immune system a boost while protecting your gut bacteria. Align is one of the most popular probiotic brands out there and is trusted by both doctors and nutritionists. The Daily Immune Support has Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12, a probiotic strain thought to be most beneficial to your immune health. It’s a lactic acid bacteria that can also help to fight lactose intolerance. This probiotic contains five billion CFUs (generally, most adults should take at least one billion CFUs in a probiotic) and is meant to be taken once a day.
Antibiotics are a common treatment for children, with 11% to 40% of antibiotic-treated children developing diarrhea.[13] Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) results from an imbalance in the colonic microbiota caused by antibiotic therapy.[13] These microbial community alterations result in changes in carbohydrate metabolism, with decreased short-chain fatty acid absorption and osmotic diarrhea as a result. A 2015 Cochrane review concluded that a protective effect of some probiotics existed for AAD in children.[13] In adults, some probiotics showed a beneficial role in reducing the occurrence of AAD and treating Clostridium difficile disease.[14]
If you want to try supplements, he suggests taking them daily for at least three months and keeping a journal to see if you notice any improvements. If you won’t remember to take them daily, however, don’t even bother. Because the strains of bacteria in supplements are not the same ones already living in your gut, it takes a few days for them to populate and build up in your gut, and then you must continue to deliver them via supplements to maintain any activity.
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Probiotics, like all strategies for helping promote your health, might not work for everyone. People have different diets, the microbes colonizing their gut are specific to each of us and everyone’s physiology is unique. Research often shows that some people respond to a specific probiotic strain and others do not. So if you feel a probiotic is something you’d like to use, one strategy is to try a product for about a month. If you don’t see a benefit, then perhaps it’s not the right one for you.
Thank you for your query. We asked dietitian Emer Delaney to respond to your questions and this is what she said, "My article lists a number of different evidence-based articles which I've listed below: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2658588/, http://www.ibs-care.org/pdfs/ref_150.pdf, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3278944/, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23548007, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17298915 and https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24772726. The study I believe you're referring to was looking at the use of probiotics in healthy people. My article and the supporting evidence includes people with specific medical conditions such as IBS, people who are in hospital and those suffering from diarrhoea from antibiotics i.e. not the healthy population. In addition, the article states the trials were still highly variable in their methods and design - the type of probiotics given and how gut bacteria were assessed were different, therefore affecting the quality of the data. The studies also contained many quality limitations as the participants were not blinded which can significantly affect results. Only one study looked at the number needed to treat, which again can result in poor outcomes and statistical assessment was lacking in many of the studies. Finally, none of the trials were from the UK, so the formulations used may differ from those on the UK market. All of the above results in a very weak conclusion." We hope this helps to allay your concerns.
Myriad factors – antibiotics, diet, stress, and age, among them – affect the balance of diverse microbes present in your gut. While you can replenish your gut bacteria by eating well and incorporating natural probiotics (ex. yogurt and kefir) into a healthy diet, these processes can take weeks or months; taking a regular probiotic is an easy and effective way to ensure your gut (and immune system) stays healthy, always.
Clostridium difficile colitis (CDC) has not consistently been shown to be prevented by probiotic cotreatment in a number of studies [Pillai and Nelson, 2008; McFarland, 2006]. In the largest study to date S. boulardii, at a dose of 2 × 1010 per day, in combination with vancomycin and metronidazole was associated with a significant decrease in risk of CDC recurrence [McFarland et al. 1994]. In addition, the study by Hickson and colleagues above showed efficacy in preventing CDC [Hickson et al. 2007]. Other studies, however, have not confirmed this benefit. A recent Cochrane review, limited by the small number of quality studies, concluded that there was insufficient evidence to recommend probiotic use even in combination with vancomycin and metronidazole [Pillai and Nelson, 2008]. In practice, however, many clinicians tend to recommend probiotics after antibiotic treatment, particularly in patients who have had CDC relapse.

I did the “milk test” on these New Rythm probiotics, along with Culturelle I had purchased in 2 different states (TX & MA, as I was traveling); my mother’s CVS brand acidophilus; and one “control” cup with milk only (so, 5 cups total in my experiment). The New Rythm became a solid yogurt consistency, while the other 4 remained liquids. I did the experiment twice, just to be sure of the results. I could not believe it!!! New Rhythm is my brand, hands down!!! I also would like to mention that my product usually arrives the day after it ships. So it will take a few days to ship when I select standard shipping, which is to be expected, but it doesn’t stay in transit long which is ideal for preserving the living cultures.

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