Every day, we’re exposed to toxins and inflammation-causing molecules from food and the environment that negatively impact digestion through pathways, such as leaky gut, known in the medical field as intestinal hyperpermeability. In leaky gut, the tight junctions that are supposed to keep disease-contributing compounds from leaving the digestive system are disrupted, allowing a lot of things through into the bloodstream that don’t belong there.
If you want to supercharge your probiotic friends, you may want to feed them with prebiotics. That’s P-R-E-biotics. They nourish the good bacteria in your gut in order to keep them healthy against the bad bacteria. They should go hand-in-hand with probiotics. Prebiotics are found in many foods, including bananas, whole grains, honey, garlic and onions. Try to get two to four servings of these prebiotic-rich foods a day.
In 1917, during World War I, Alfred Nissle isolated a strain of E. coli from the feces of a soldier who did not develop enterocolitis during a severe outbreak of shigellosis. Nissle used the E. coli strain with considerable success in acute cases of infectious intestinal diseases such as salmonellosis and shigellosis [Nissle, 1959]. E. coli Nissle 1917 is still in use today and is one of the few examples of a non-LAB probiotic.
L. casei also made headlines when a study found it beneficial in relieving anxiety. The randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study found supplementation with 24 billion units of the L. casei strain Shirota led to a rise in probiotics lactobacillus and bifidobacterium, as well as a significant decrease in symptoms of anxiety and depression [2].
Probiotics are actually bacteria – the “good” kind. Our bodies have trillions of these microorganisms, some harmful but the majority of them beneficial. “Good” bacteria help break down food and keep the “bad” bacteria at bay. Probiotic bacteria are found in cultured dairy foods like yogurt, fermented vegetables like kimchi and sauerkraut, and foods fortified with probiotic bacterial cultures. They’re also available in capsules.
Tempeh is an Indonesian probiotic food that is made from fermented soybeans. It is a high protein food that has a smoky, nutty flavor and is more firm than tofu. It tastes similar to mushrooms. Tempeh comes in patty form and is used by many people as a meat substitute. Soy tempeh is rich in a probiotic microorganism called Bifidobacterium bifidum. B. bifidum is a bacterium that may be particularly beneficial for those suffering from diarrhea, abdominal pain, and constipation. B. Bifidum helps boost immunity in the gastrointestinal tract. Bifidobacterium bifidum is also normally found in the vagina. Bacillus subtilis is another probiotic strain found in tempeh. Tempeh contains less calcium than milk, but the calcium in tempeh is very bioavailable, meaning it is very easy to absorb. Some bacteria used to produce tempeh manufacture vitamin B12.

Quality matters for any supplement, and that goes triple for probiotics. Many commercial brands lack the technology to identify specific strains and how much of that strain each dose contains. That could mean you get an ineffective or potentially harmful dose. It's a great sign if the company is using strains that have been used specifically in clinical trials at a dose similar to or the same as that used in the study. This is one of the only ways to guarantee a probiotic's clinical effectiveness.
Large bodies of evidence suggest that probiotics are effective against several forms of diarrhea, including antibiotic-associated diarrhea, acute diarrhea, traveler’s diarrhea, infectious diarrhea and other associated diarrhea symptoms. They also help with constipation relief. Probiotics have also been found in meta-analyses to reduce the pain and severity of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms, aid in the eradication of H. pylori and treat pouchitis, a condition that occurs after the surgical removal of the large intestine and rectum.
Probiotics stick around for a while, though for how long isn’t precisely clear. You have to keep taking them to continue to reap the benefits. Further, getting a wide variety of strains into your system is beneficial. “Periodically mixing up your probiotic supplement is also a good way to ensure that you get different health-building strains in your health regime,” says Dr. Cook.
Perturbation of bacterial microflora of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract may play an important role in the pathophysiology of some GI disorders. Probiotics have been used as a treatment modality for over a century. They may restore normal bacterial microflora and effect the functioning of the GI tract by a variety of mechanisms. Probiotics are not currently regulated and only few randomized controlled trials exist investigating their efficacy in different GI disorders. They are available in a variety of formulations and delivery systems making interpretation and comparison of studies even more difficult. The efficacy of probiotics, either as a single strain or a combination of probiotics, has been tested in antibiotic-associated diarrhea, Clostridium difficile colitis, infectious diarrhea, ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, pouchitis, and irritable bowel syndrome, among other disorders. Results of the studies are reviewed in this article and recommendations for probiotic use in these disorders are made. Although probiotics appear to be generally safe in an outpatient setting, the situation may be different in immunocompromised, hospitalized patients who may be at a greater risk of developing probiotic sepsis. No studies exist addressing the issue of safety specifically. Many questions regarding use of probiotics in GI disorders remain to be answered in future studies, such as most optimal doses, duration of treatment, physiological and immunological effects, efficacy of specific probiotics in specific disease states, and safety in debilitated patients.
Diarrhea is a change is the frequency and looseness of bowel movements. Symptoms associated with diarrhea are cramping, abdominal pain, and the sensation of rectal urgency. Causes of diarrhea include viral, bacterial, or parasite infection, gastroenteritis, food poisoning, and drugs. Absorbents and anti-motility medications are used to treat diarrhea.
While more research is necessary to fully understand the benefits of different probiotic strains, we do know that not all probiotics are created equal. The Lactobacilli, for instance, live in our digestive, urinary, and genital systems and can be found in some fermented foods like yogurt. Bifidobacteria normally live in the intestines as lactic acid bacteria, and are also found in fermented foods. According to nutrition expert Alex Caspero, RD, “For certain conditions, you want to ensure you’re taking the strand that is most likely to benefit you.” Here’s a simple breakdown to help you determine the best probiotic for you.

But what if investigators could design probiotics to treat specific individuals? Many researchers think personalized probiotics are the most promising path forward for patients with compromised gut microbiomes. Last year Jens Walter of the University of Alberta and his colleagues published a study that gives a glimpse of this potential future. The researchers decided to see what it would take to get the bacteria in a probiotic to successfully colonize the intestines of 23 volunteers. They chose a particular strain of Bifidobacterium longum that earlier studies had indicated could survive in the human intestine. In the study, the volunteers consumed either a drink containing 10 billion live B. longum bacteria or a placebo in the form of a glucose-based food additive (maltodextrin) each day for two weeks. Periodic fecal samples revealed higher than typical levels of B. longum in participants who did not consume the placebo.
Make sure to keep probiotics away from moisture and heat, which can kill off some of the microbes. I recommend taking them on an empty stomach, ideally right when you wake up. You should always store supplements in a cool, dark place. Most strains of probiotics are fragile and should be protected from heat, so refrigeration is ideal. I recommend the probiotic Gut Instinct from HUM Nutrition for transparency and high quality.
In the past, probiotics have been proposed as part of a weight loss diet. However, a 2015 meta-analysis looked at available randomized, controlled trials investigating this effect and determined that the studies did not seem to support this hypothesis, as body weight and BMI were not consistently reduced. The researchers did point out the need for better designed trials, because they were not convinced the results were based on well-designed science.
Probiotics stick around for a while, though for how long isn’t precisely clear. You have to keep taking them to continue to reap the benefits. Further, getting a wide variety of strains into your system is beneficial. “Periodically mixing up your probiotic supplement is also a good way to ensure that you get different health-building strains in your health regime,” says Dr. Cook.
"Probiotics help with constipation, diarrhea, colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, abdominal pain, Crohn's disease, and flatulence," says Shapiro. "Probiotics work to increase the number of immunoglobulin cells and cytokine-producing cells in the intestine. They improve the healthy bacteria population in the GI tract by repopulating the gut to help with digestion."

Chronic inflammation contributes to nearly every disease imaginable, and it doesn’t do your gut any favors. Studies connect inflammation with everything from leaky gut to weight gain. Those are among the many reasons to add cold-water fish and other omega-3-rich foods to your diet. The two primary omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are important anti-inflammatory promoters in the body often deficient in the American diet. Along with these foods, take one to four 1,000-milligram softgels daily with meals to enhance their absorption.


They then tested different doses of the 10-bacterial probiotic blend in mice, as well as in a slurry of human feces meant to mimic the environment of a human digestive system. The scientists found that even single doses maintained the healthy microbial balance and increased SCFA production in both the mice and the feces medium, the researchers reported.
Oral health. An increasing number of probiotic lozenges and gums are promoted for oral health—to reduce periodontal disease, throat infections, and bad breath, for example. There’s preliminary evidence that certain strains may have some benefits, but commercial products may not have the same strains and formulations as those tested in published studies.
Reviews looking at the treatment or prevention of vulvovaginal candidiasis in women, pneumonia in patients hooked up to respirators, and colds in otherwise healthy people show some positive results. But the authors note that the studies are almost all of low quality, small in size, and often funded by companies with significant conflicts of interest.
“The bacterial strain L. plantarum 299v, found in GoodBelly, appears to be helpful in providing relief from gas and bloating in people with IBS,” says Christy Brissette, RD, a dietitian in Chicago and a nutrition partner with GoodBelly. IBS affects 4-14% of women. “This strain may also help promote the diversity of your gut microbiota while preventing the overgrowth of bacteria that could make you sick, such as E. coli. And great news for vegetarians and vegans: It helps promote non-heme iron absorption, the type of iron found in plant-based foods.” Drink the probiotic shot straight, or blend into a berry smoothie. Here are 7 more ways to relieve IBS symptoms naturally.
Reviews looking at the treatment or prevention of vulvovaginal candidiasis in women, pneumonia in patients hooked up to respirators, and colds in otherwise healthy people show some positive results. But the authors note that the studies are almost all of low quality, small in size, and often funded by companies with significant conflicts of interest.

From Lactobacillus acidophilus to Bacillus Coagulans, the BlueBiotics blend is a veritable list of the most researched and proven probiotic bacteria known to science. And recent advances on the blend have made it the only full-spectrum probiotic supplement on the market, as it contains strains which are typically not available to the general public (Bacillus Coagulans and S. boulardii). The CFU count alone is remarkable enough, leaving most comparable spectrums in the dust… HOWEVER even more surprisingly our tests showed that a whopping 98% of the probiotic colonies in BlueBiotics were still alive, making this BY FAR the most effective probiotic supplement that we have ever reviewed. Also, because of the diverse pool of strains in BlueBiotics, users have reported a wide variety of benefits from weight loss, to increased energy, improved digestive health and cognitive function. Many of our staff switched to these probiotics, as well as myself and my family.
"Probiotics applied topically sit on the skin's surface and prevent the skin cells from seeing the bad bacteria and parasites that can cause this immune system response," confirms Engelman. "This is known as 'bacterial interference,' as probiotics protect the skin and interfere with the ability of bad bugs like bacteria and parasites to provoke an immune reaction.
^ Jump up to: a b c d e Goldenberg, Joshua Z.; Lytvyn, Lyubov; Steurich, Justin; Parkin, Patricia; Mahant, Sanjay; Johnston, Bradley C. (2015-12-22). "Probiotics for the prevention of pediatric antibiotic-associated diarrhea". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (12): CD004827. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004827.pub4. ISSN 1469-493X. PMC 3374737. PMID 26695080.
The foods that are highest in prebiotic fiber are also difficult to find and prepare. Jerusalem artichoke — not the average artichoke sold in your local grocery store — and chicory root contain the highest amounts of inulin and oligofructose. The good news is that Prebiotin offers an easy solution: with our simple supplement, you can get enough prebiotic fiber through normal dietary intake instead of eating a high amount of chicory root a day. Prebiotin is also low in calories. Unlike other fiber supplements, Prebiotin does not have an unpleasant taste or texture. It is slightly sweet and easily combines with beverages such as coffee. You can also sprinkle it on top of food.
Yes! Beneficial yeast is a probiotic, defined as a microorganism that supports human wellness. (Probiotic means “for life.”) Saccharomyces boulardii is a remarkable yeast that can significantly support your whole internal ecosystem. It helps reduce problematic yeasts, such as Candida, and replenishes healthy gut flora.* While many probiotic supplements only deliver friendly bacteria without yeast, Probiotic All-Flora contains 5 billion CFU of beneficial yeast for complete support.
“It is quite difficult to choose a solid top pick for probiotics because different strains have been shown to help different clinical issues,” says Rachel Fine, MS, RD, CSSD, a dietitian in New York City. “However, this supplement is a great option, with 50 billion strains.” It’s one of the best probiotics for women and supports vaginal, digestive, and immune system health. “It is best to choose a product that is well within its expiration date to ensure a higher number of viable cells,” advises Fine.
Bifidobacteria were first isolated from a breast-fed infant by Henry Tissier, who also worked at the Pasteur Institute. The isolated bacterium named Bacillus bifidus communis[56] was later renamed to the genus Bifidobacterium. Tissier found that bifidobacteria are dominant in the gut microbiota of breast-fed babies and he observed clinical benefits from treating diarrhea in infants with bifidobacteria.

Quality matters for any supplement, and that goes triple for probiotics. Many commercial brands lack the technology to identify specific strains and how much of that strain each dose contains. That could mean you get an ineffective or potentially harmful dose. It's a great sign if the company is using strains that have been used specifically in clinical trials at a dose similar to or the same as that used in the study. This is one of the only ways to guarantee a probiotic's clinical effectiveness.
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"Although all of our probiotic-consuming volunteers showed probiotics in their stool, only some of them showed them in their gut, which is where they need to be," says Segal. "If some people resist and only some people permit them, the benefits of the standard probiotics we all take can't be as universal as we once thought. These results highlight the role of the gut microbiome in driving very specific clinical differences between people."
Taking probiotics can also help keep your urinary system working properly. While you might think that yeast imbalances or urinary tract issues are primarily women's problems, both are common in men as well, especially in those whose bacterial balance is off-kilter. Taking probiotics can help address these issues by encouraging the growth of good bacteria to crowd out unwanted yeast.10

If you decide to use a probiotic supplement and get clearance from your doctor for doing so, be sure to read the label carefully. You want to be sure that the supplement contains live strains of the bacteria or yeast, and that the life of these strains is guaranteed at the time of use, and not at the time of manufacture. Other points of comparison are the number of bacteria strains and the number of colony-forming units, although this does not necessarily guarantee results.
The side effects of antibiotic use are often not trivial. Many people experience discomfort and a change in bowel habits, but some experience more severe infections, such as opportunistic colonization of the gut with bacteria such as Clostridium difficile (C.diff), which affected half a million Americans in 2015 and was directly responsible for at least 15,000 deaths.
Survival past stomach acids - probiotic powder in capsule form is ill prepared when it comes to protecting the delicate bacteria from being pulverized by the harsh environment of the stomach acids. Worse, most of the organisms tend to die off before they reach their intended destination due to moisture that gets trapped between the capsule shell and the powder.

Some strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) may affect pathogens by means of competitive inhibition (i.e., by competing for growth) and some evidence suggests they may improve immune function by increasing the number of IgA-producing plasma cells and increasing or improving phagocytosis, as well as increasing the proportion of T lymphocytes and natural killer cells.[96][97] LAB products might aid in the treatment of acute diarrhea, and possibly affect rotavirus infections in children and travelers' diarrhea in adults,[96][97] but no products are approved for such indications. A large study demonstrated that probiotics may decrease dental caries in children.[98] Two reviews reported reduction of the incidence of respiratory-tract infections in adults.[99][100]


The optimal number of colony forming units (CFUs) for each bacterial strain delivered remains unknown. Doses in human trials are based on those used in animal studies despite the differences in intestinal surface area. Dose–response studies are generally lacking. Commercially available probiotic formulations typically have at least 106 CFUs, but they may range up to 1012 CFUs.
Chlorella, a type of green algae, is thought to be one of the most nutrient-dense foods available. It contains chlorella growth factor (CGF), a complex of proteins, vitamins, and sugars that works with fiber in the GI tract to promote the growth of healthy intestinal flora. It also contains chlorophyll, a potent antioxidant that binds to toxins and helps remove them from the body. “Chlorella is known for detoxification, but I’ve found that it does wonders for promoting normal GI function,” Dr. Rawls says.
Fecal microbiota transplants (FMT), or "poop transplants," can treat a type of gut disorder with an infusion of diverse bacteria from a healthy digestive system, distilled from a donor's poop. This helps to correct imbalances of microbial diversity when the gut microbiome is dominated by the bacteria Clostridium difficile (C. diff), which can lead to serious gut disorders. 
Probiotics produce enzymes that help break down chemicals the average human gut has a hard time with, like the oligosaccharides in legumes. That results in less gastrointestinal distress and better absorption of nutrients. Probiotics also elicit an immune response that helps your body deal with harmful pathogens and other GI problems. The hard research, especially on recommended CFU dosages, is minimal, but it’s expanding as interest in the product does.
In addition to the prophylactic effect of stocking your gut with good bacteria, there are some probiotic strains that have also shown promise in treating symptoms of autoimmune disorders, including L. Paracasei and L. Acidophilus. Others, like B. Lactis, could help prevent respiratory infections. Renew Life Flora Extra Care has all three targeted bacteria strains at 30 billion CFUs per serving.
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