In 1907, Russian zoologist Élie Metchinkoff theorized that the gut microbiome could be modified by replacing the harmful bacteria in the digestive tract with beneficial strains instead. He also suggested that the aging process stemmed from the production of toxic substances by specific strains of bacteria in the gut. He believed that fermented foods like sour milk could help lower the pH of the intestinal tract and block the growth of bacteria.
Probiotics have been consumed by humans in one form or another for over 100 years, with a good safety record generally. A Finnish epidemiological study has shown no increase in Lactobacillus infections in healthy individuals in areas with documented large rises of use of Lactobacillus-containing products [Saxelin et al. 1996]. Probiotic supplementation has been studied in healthy volunteers, and the data suggest that several probiotic strains may enhance nonspecific immune responses, but the effects on adaptive cellular and humoral immune responses appear to be negligible [Borchers et al. 2009].
^ Altenhoefer, Artur; Oswald, Sibylle; Sonnenborn, Ulrich; Enders, Corinne; Schulze, Juergen; Hacker, Joerg; Oelschlaeger, Tobias A (April 2004). "The probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 interferes with invasion of human intestinal epithelial cells by different enteroinvasive bacterial pathogens". FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology. 40 (3): 223–229. doi:10.1016/S0928-8244(03)00368-7.
Billed as the most effective probiotic currently available on the market, Pro-25 combines 13 of the most powerful probiotic strains to deliver the most robust and well-rounded overall digestive health. Delayed-release capsules also protect live organisms from your stomach acid, delivering the right strains to the right location in your digestive system, ensuring maximum efficacy and benefits.
Probiotics can also help offset the bacterial imbalance caused by taking antibiotics. Antibiotics kill good bacteria along with the harmful ones, often leading to gas, cramping or diarrhea. Potential benefits of probiotics have been seen in the treatment or prevention of many conditions such as diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn's disease.
When choosing the probiotic that’s right for you, don’t be afraid to ask your health professional for advice. Or reach out directly to supplement companies for supportive research. The reliable manufacturers expect this. “I would encourage consumers to request the clinical research evidence to substantiate the use of a formula or the microbes it contains,” advises Thomas. Find out more facts you’ve always wanted to know about probiotics.
Diarrhea is a change is the frequency and looseness of bowel movements. Symptoms associated with diarrhea are cramping, abdominal pain, and the sensation of rectal urgency. Causes of diarrhea include viral, bacterial, or parasite infection, gastroenteritis, food poisoning, and drugs. Absorbents and anti-motility medications are used to treat diarrhea.

Hi Elaine - Most probiotics sold in pill form are dried in a way which keeps them in a dormant yet still viable state, coming "back to life" once exposed to water/nutrients. Although this helps to preserve them, it is not a guarantee that all will survive. If exposed to moisture or excessive heat during storage, they can become non-viable. This is why tests probiotic supplements to determine how many viable cells they contain (see the results here: For more information about this and withstanding stomach acid, see the "What to Consider When Buying" section of the Probiotics Review (, and this CL Answer:
Dr. Vincent M. Pedre, medical director of Pedre Integrative Health and president of Dr. Pedre Wellness, is a board-certified internist in private practice in New York City since 2004. His philosophy and practices are a blend of both Western and Eastern medical traditions. He is a clinical instructor in medicine at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine and is certified in yoga and medical acupuncture. His unique methodology is best described as integrative or defined by a functional, systems-based approach to health. With his holistic understanding of both sides of the equation, he can help each patient choose the best course of action for their ailments to provide both immediate and long-term relief. His holistic approach incorporates positive, preventive health and wellness lifestyle choices. Dr. Pedre Wellness is a growing wellness platform offering health-enhancing programs along with informative social media and lifestyle products, such as dietary supplements, books, and weight-loss programs.
Probiotics have been shown to help reduce duration of pediatric acute diarrhea, decrease symptoms associated with taking antibiotics, manage symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome, reduce crying time in infants with colic and reduce relapses of ulcerative colitis. Certain probiotics may also inhibit the growth of Helicobacter pylori, bacteria that colonize the stomach and can cause ulcers and stomach cancer.
Bifidobacteria were first isolated from a breast-fed infant by Henry Tissier, who also worked at the Pasteur Institute. The isolated bacterium named Bacillus bifidus communis[56] was later renamed to the genus Bifidobacterium. Tissier found that bifidobacteria are dominant in the gut microbiota of breast-fed babies and he observed clinical benefits from treating diarrhea in infants with bifidobacteria.
Now researchers are finding evidence that the effects of bacteria in the gastrointestinal (GI) system send signals to the central nervous system, linking the gut with the brain. This could account for some known connections between GI illness and mental illness. For example, a higher-than-average number of people with irritable bowel syndrome also develop depression and anxiety.

These are live microorganisms that will not provide the promised benefits if they don't remain alive. The manufacturer and consumer must pay close attention to the conditions of storage at which the particular microorganism will survive and the end of their shelf life. The potency will indicate the number of viable bacteria per dose, and the purity has to do with presence of contaminating or ineffective bacteria.

The first major finding was that many people were essentially resistant to any effect from probiotics and their gut microbiome did not change after taking them.  Of 19 people in the study taking probiotics consisting of 11 of the most commonly found strains, only 8 had any notable colonization of their gut with the bacteria in the probiotics, with 3 people considered to have significant colonization and 5 people with "mild" colonization.
Survival past stomach acids - probiotic powder in capsule form is ill prepared when it comes to protecting the delicate bacteria from being pulverized by the harsh environment of the stomach acids. Worse, most of the organisms tend to die off before they reach their intended destination due to moisture that gets trapped between the capsule shell and the powder.
Bacteria die out over time. Some supplements list the potency when they were manufactured (before they rode in a truck, sat on the shelf at the grocery store, or hung out in the kitchen cupboard for a few months). In this case, there could be dramatically fewer viable bacteria by the time you consume them than when they were first encapsulated, and good bacteria are no good to you dead.
Bacillus subtilis stands out from other strains of bacteria because it’s one of the few types that is able to grow and thrive in a variety of diverse environments, including in soil, on the roots of plants and in the gastrointestinal tracts of animals. (5) Animal models suggest that it may be in the running for the best probiotic for diarrhea, noting that it can improve both growth performance and digestive health. (6)
But other research, especially in healthy adults, shows little benefit from taking probiotics. And in fact, it may even introduce new symptoms: One small study of 30 subjects, published in the journal Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology, showed that taking a lot of probiotics can result in symptoms like brain fog and bloating in those using them for GI complaints.

According to Bonnie Taub-Dix, MA, RD, CDN, founder of Better Than Dieting and author of Read It Before You Eat It, “We have more bacterial cells in our body than actual tissue, so you want as much “good” bacteria to be on your side. But not all probiotics are alike, and how your body reacts to them will not be the same as someone else who takes them.”
We also found strains linked to five other health benefits like weight loss and lowering cholesterol. We feature options for those cases below, but they aren’t top picks because those use cases aren’t as heavily researched as immune health or IBS relief. Still, chances are any probiotic supplement is going to make some improvement to your digestive health, so don’t be afraid to experiment.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) treatment with antibiotics is fraught by variable efficacy. Recent discovery of genetic polymorphisms (NOD2/CARD15) in CD which play a role in bacterial peptidoglycan recognition [Inohara et al. 2003; Kobayashi et al. 2005], may be responsive to alterations in enteric flora and thus be important in the pathogenesis and maintenance of IBD [Sartor, 2004].
Miso is a Japanese fermented soybean paste that is made with other ingredients. It aids digestive function. Miso may be used to make miso soup. A few tablespoons of the paste can be dissolved in hot water to make a probiotic-rich broth. An imbalance of gut flora in the GI tract may contribute to symptoms that occur with conditions like diarrhea, constipation, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), gastroenteritis, and inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis and Chrohn's disease). Probiotics in ferrmented foods like miso may help crowd out pathogenic gut bacteria, boost intestinal immunity, and produce vitamins, proteins, and other nutrients that are beneficial to health.
In the past, probiotics have been proposed as part of a weight loss diet. However, a 2015 meta-analysis looked at available randomized, controlled trials investigating this effect and determined that the studies did not seem to support this hypothesis, as body weight and BMI were not consistently reduced. The researchers did point out the need for better designed trials, because they were not convinced the results were based on well-designed science.

The bacteria in your gut—both visitors and residents—need to eat too. Enter prebiotics, nondigestible carbs that feed friendly bacteria and help them multiply. They may even be helpful on their own, at recalibrating microbiota that have been thrown out of whack by stress; a recent study found mice who ate prebiotics slept better after a stressful experience. Hutkins advises taking them daily in the form of food, not pills, because it's difficult to get the needed amount from a supplement. Prebiotics are found in wholegrain oatmeal, bananas, onions, garlic, and asparagus.
^ Jump up to: a b Cheplin HA, Rettger LF (December 1920). "Studies on the Transformation of the Intestinal Flora, with Special Reference to the Implantation of Bacillus Acidophilus: II. Feeding Experiments on Man". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 6 (12): 704–5. Bibcode:1920PNAS....6..704C. doi:10.1073/pnas.6.12.704. PMC 1084701. PMID 16576567.[non-primary source needed]
A live formulation of lyophilized Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium infantis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, and Streptococcus thermophilus (VSL#3) has shown effectiveness in the small clinical trials, some of which were not randomized nor double-blinded, that had been done as of 2015; more high-quality clinical trials are needed to determine safety and effectiveness.[102][103]
Some yogurts contain the aforementioned bacteria; however, because they are sensitive to oxygen, light, and dramatic temperature changes, make sure to look for yogurts with “live and active cultures.” Many commercial yogurts are heat-treated or pasteurized, resulting in the loss of these valuable cultures. Learn more about the smart way to shop for probiotics.
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After the antibiotics had cleared the way, the standard probiotics could easily colonize the gut of everyone in the second group, but to the team's surprise, this probiotic colonization prevented the host's normal microbiome and gut gene expression profile from returning to their normal state for months afterward. In contrast, the aFMT resulted in the third group's native gut microbiome and gene program returning to normal within days.
Anal itching is the irritation of the skin at the exit of the rectum, known as the anus, accompanied by the desire to scratch. Causes include everything from irritating foods we eat, to certain diseases, and infections. Treatment options include medicine including, local anesthetics, for example, lidocaine (Xylocaine), pramoxine (Fleet Pain-Relief), and benzocaine (Lanacane Maximum Strength), vasoconstrictors, for example, phenylephrine 0.25% (Medicone Suppository, Preparation H, Rectocaine), protectants, for example, glycerin, kaolin, lanolin, mineral oil (Balneol), astringents, for example, witch hazel and calamine, antiseptics, for example, boric acid and phenol, aeratolytics, for example, resorcinol, analgesics, for example, camphor and juniper tar, and
Whether a brand of probiotics works really depends on its quality and your body's own gut. Everyone has a different set of gut flora so try several to see what works for you. Using a brand of at least 40 billion CFU is best. There seems to be some debate as to whether one should use refrigerated or unrefrigerated probiotics. I went with the side that claims unrefrigerated are sturdier and less prone to die off.
Hi Elaine - Most probiotics sold in pill form are dried in a way which keeps them in a dormant yet still viable state, coming "back to life" once exposed to water/nutrients. Although this helps to preserve them, it is not a guarantee that all will survive. If exposed to moisture or excessive heat during storage, they can become non-viable. This is why tests probiotic supplements to determine how many viable cells they contain (see the results here: For more information about this and withstanding stomach acid, see the "What to Consider When Buying" section of the Probiotics Review (, and this CL Answer:
Unlike MegaFood, the Renew Life label’s cold-storage recommendation is printed so small we nearly missed it (and it didn’t ship with a cold pack). If a probiotic requires refrigeration, be vigilant when buying it — the retailer that stores it or the company that ships it should keep it refrigerated until it gets to you. Otherwise, some of its potency might diminish in storage or transit.
One review of probiotics benefits for necrotizing enterocolitis was bold enough to say, “The results confirm the significant benefits of probiotic supplements in reducing death and disease in preterm neonates. The … evidence indicate that additional placebo-controlled trials are unnecessary if a suitable probiotic product is available.” Regarding sepsis in developing countries (where it is overwhelmingly more common), a 2017 randomized, controlled trial claims that a large number of these cases “could be effectively prevented” if mothers are given a synbiotic (probiotic and prebiotic together) that contains the probiotic strain L. plantarum.

Yogurt: It can contain Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Bifidobacterium bifidum. Research has shown links with yogurt to have positive effects on the gut microbiota and is associated with a reduced risk for gastrointestinal disease and improvement of lactose intolerance (especially among children), type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, allergies and respiratory diseases, as well as improved dental and bone health.

In a separate study involving 21 healthy volunteers, also published today in Cell, the same group of researchers found that taking probiotics after treatment with broad spectrum antibiotics may actually delay the return of people's normal gut microbiome. This goes against the idea that probiotics can help "repopulate" people's gut bacteria after antibiotics wipe them out.
Nevertheless, the presence of certain bacteria in the lower gut benefits overall health, not only digestion. The science on the role of the lower gut is changing every day and has advanced significantly — even over the past 10 years. Research strongly suggests that a favorable bacterial balance in the lower gut positively affects the factors influencing heart disease, immunity, bone strength, depression, and obesity and weight loss. Science has only just begun to determine the roles that bacteria play in human health, but it seems clear that healthier people have healthier bacterial balances. People with poorly balanced bacteria levels are more likely to suffer serious health problems.
^ Jump up to: a b c Rijkers GT, Bengmark S, Enck P, Haller D, Herz U, Kalliomaki M, Kudo S, Lenoir-Wijnkoop I, Mercenier A, Myllyluoma E, Rabot S, Rafter J, Szajewska H, Watzl B, Wells J, Wolvers D, Antoine JM (2010). "Guidance for substantiating the evidence for beneficial effects of probiotics: current status and recommendations for future research". J. Nutr. 140 (3): 671S–6S. doi:10.3945/jn.109.113779. PMID 20130080.
Probiotics have been shown to help reduce duration of pediatric acute diarrhea, decrease symptoms associated with taking antibiotics, manage symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome, reduce crying time in infants with colic and reduce relapses of ulcerative colitis. Certain probiotics may also inhibit the growth of Helicobacter pylori, bacteria that colonize the stomach and can cause ulcers and stomach cancer.
Step No. 1 is consume more sour foods — it’s the top way probiotics benefits can be accessed. Embrace what I call “the power of sour” with sour foods like apple cider vinegar and fermented vegetables. They contain some probiotics, but also they contain certain types of acids like gluconic acid and acetic acid, healthy acids that support the function of probiotics (even functioning like prebiotics in some cases).
There is one Voluntary Certification Program by which a supplement manufacturer can choose to be evaluated. (CL) is the leading provider of independent test results and information to help consumers and health-care professionals identify the best quality health and nutrition products. Products that have passed their testing for identity, strength, purity, and disintegration can print the CL Seal of Approval on their product. This is one step toward being confident that one is getting the amount and type of probiotic promised by the manufacturer.
Along with about 30 other neurotransmitters, your gut manufactures about 95 percent of serotonin, the feel-good neurotransmitter that SSRIs keep circulating. (Worth noting: SSRIs prolong the time serotonin stays stimulating the neurons. These drugs don’t actually make serotonin. They falsely elevate the serotonin that is already there, leading to greater depletions down the road.)
No matter how many superfoods you eat, your body won’t be able to benefit from them if your gut environment isn’t teeming with healthy bacteria. You see, enzymes and digestive bacteria help to break down the food you eat into molecules that make their way into your bloodstream to nourish your body. Inadequate or unbalanced microbial populations in the gut can derail this process and can even lead to malabsorption of critical nutrients. 
Other ingredients: Maltodextrin, hypromellose (capsule), ferment media (organic Saccharomyces cerevisiae, organic gum acacia, organic soy flour, organic molasses, lactic acid bacteria [Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus], bromelain [deactivated] and papain [deactivated]), glycerin, silicon dioxide, microcrystalline cellulose, rice extract and sunflower oil.